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Sempronius Gracchus, Gaius  

Ernst Badian

Published Online:
Jul 2015
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus, younger brother of Ti. *Sempronius Gracchus (3), served under his cousin and brother-in-law P. *Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus at *Numantia. A member of his brother's land ... More

senate, imperial period  

Graham Burton

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Under *Augustus and his successors far-reaching modifications of the social origins and the corporate and individual functions of senators occurred. Despite those changes the senatorial ordo remained ... More

senate, regal and republican period  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

In the time of the *Gracchi (c.133–121 bce) the senate was a body of around 300 wealthy men of aristocratic birth, most of them ex-magistrates. Although the sources tend to assume that this state of ... More

senators, patterns of recruitment  

Barbara Levick

Published Online:
Mar 2016
The emperor *Claudius pointed out in 48 ce (ILS212, trans. D. Braund, Augustus to Nero, no. 570) that newcomers had reigned in the regal period; the senate was never a closed body. Claudius' ... More

senatus consultum  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Senatus consultum was the advice of the senate (see senatus) to the magistrates, and was expressed in the form of a resolution or decree. In Republican times it had no legal force, but in practice it ... More

senatus consultum Iuventianum  

Benedikt Eckhardt

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Subject:
Roman Law
senatus consultum Iuventianum is the modern designation for a senate decree passed on March 14, 129ce, in reaction to a legal case decided by Hadrian. The name is derived from P. Iuventius Celsus, ... More

senatus consultum Orfitianum  

Kimberley Czajkowski

Published Online:
Jan 2019
Subject:
Roman Law
The Senatus Consultum Orfitianum was a senatorial decree enacted under Marcus Aurelius in 178 ce that gave children priority over other heirs in inheriting from an intestate mother. ... More

senatus consultum Pegasianum  

Benedikt Eckhardt

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Subject:
Roman Law
Senatus consultum Pegasianum is the name used by Gaius (2.256, 258, 286a) and the Institutes of Justinian (2.23.6-7) for a decree by the senate on fideicommissa, passed in the consulate of L. ... More

senatus consultum Tertullianum  

Kimberley Czajkowski

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Roman Law
The senatus consultum Tertullianum was a senatorial decree of the Hadrianic era that placed certain mothers in the line of succession to the estates of their intestate children, thereby ... More

senatus consultum ultimum  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Andrew Lintott

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Senatus consultum ultimum ‘the ultimate decree of the *senate’, a modern term, deriving from Caes. BCiv. 1. 5, for what was in fact a declaration of emergency.This decree urged magistrates, usually ... More

servitudes  

Barry Nicholas and Alan Rodger

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Until late classical Roman law, the term servitutes (servitudes) was applied to restrictions on the ownership of land in favour of neighbouring land (e.g. a right of way from one plot over another to ... More

status, legal and social, Greek  

Bruce W. Frier

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Greek social and legal status terminology was rich, complex, and confused. There was a multiplicity of Greek communities, often very different in character, which although typically small in scale ... More

stipulatio  

R. Zimmermann

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
A formal *contract concluded orally in the form of question (made by the future creditor, stipulator: ‘Do you pledge that 100 will be given?’ (centum dari spondes?)), and answer (by the future ... More

subscriptions  

M. D. Reeve

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Sunscriptions in ancient texts, usually retained after each book of a work copied from rolls into a codex, were the forerunners of titles. Detached from the text and therefore distinct from ‘seals’ ... More

suffect, suffectio  

Piero Treves and Barbara Levick

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
The procedure by which a substitute or suffect (suffectus) was appointed whenever a Roman magistrate (see magistracy, roman) resigned or died in office. It was employed to fill vacancies even of very ... More

Sulpicius Rufus, Servius, Roman lawyer  

Ernst Badian, Christopher Pelling, and Tony Honoré

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Roman lawyer who prosecuted L. *Licinius Murena when defeated by him in the consular elections for 62 bce; in his speech Pro Murena* Cicero makes fun of Sulpicius' legal expertise. He was eventually ... More

tabula Bantina  

Andrew Lintott

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Fragments of a bronze tablet deriving from near *Bantia in *Lucania. One large group of fragments was discovered in the 18th cent. and a third piece in 1967. They are engraved on both sides, having ... More

tabula Hebana  

Eastland Stuart Staveley and Barbara Levick

Published Online:
Mar 2016
A bronze tablet found (1947) in the Tiber valley near the site of ancient Heba (mod. Magliano). It bears part of the text of a rogatio (bill) conferring honours upon the dead *Germanicus (cf. ... More

tabula Irnitana  

Michael Crawford

Published Online:
Mar 2016
The most recently discovered and the completest copy of the Flavian lex for the new municipia (see municipium) of *Baetica created after the wars of 68–9 ce; of ten tablets, we have 3, 5, ... More

theft, Roman  

R. Zimmermann

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Roman Law
Theft (furtum), as its probable etymology suggests, was originally confined to cases involving a carrying away (ferre). But in the course of the republic, the notion was extended very considerably ... More

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