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Theon (2), of Smyrna, Platonist, fl. c. 115–140 CE  

John Dillon

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Theon (2) of *Smyrna (fl. c. 115–40 ce), Platonist (cf. plato(1)), author of an extant work, Aspects of Mathematics Useful for the Reading of Plato (Expos.), and of a lost commentary on the Republic. ... More

Theophrastus  

Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Theophrastus of *Eresus in Lesbos, associate and successor of *Aristotle. In spite of a tradition that he had been a pupil of *Plato(1), it is probable that he first joined Aristotle when the latter ... More

Thrasymachus of Chalcedon, fl. c. 430–400 BCE  

William David Ross and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Thrasymachus of Chalcedon (fl. c. 430–400 bce), *sophist and rhetorician, is best known for his defence, in *Plato(1)'s Republic, of the thesis that justice is the interest of the ... More

thymos  

Douglas Cairns

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Thymos (or thumos), cognate with Indo-European words meaning “smoke,” is one of a number of terms in Greek which associate psychological activity with air and breath. In the ... More

Timaeus (1), of Locri Epizephyrii, Pythagorean  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
In Italy, Pythagorean (see pythagoras(1)), the chief speaker in *Plato(1)'s Timaeus. We have no knowledge of him independent of this, and he may have been a fictitious character. The work in ... More

Timaeus (3), lexicographer, between the 2nd and 5th cent. CE  

D. O'Meara

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy

Compiled an extant brief lexicon of difficult words in *Plato(1).

Timon (2) of Phlius, Sceptic, follower of Pyrrhon, c. 320–230 BCE  

Gisela Striker

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Timon (2) of Phlius (c. 320–230 bce), *Sceptic, follower of *Pyrrhon. After a period of poverty in his youth, when he earned a living as a dancer, he studied in *Megara with *Stilpon and then in ... More

transmigration  

Christopher Rowe

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
The belief that on death, some aspect of us—usually identified with the ‘*soul’ (ψυχή; see psychē)—survives to enter another body, is connected with the idea of immortality, supplying one possible ... More

Tullius Cicero, Marcus, philosophica, the famous orator Cicero  

John Hedley Simon and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Subject:
Philosophy
Apart from the treatises on rhetoric, an important part of the Hellenistic philosophical curriculum (though see below), these fall into two parts:(a) the writings on political philosophy and ... More

Volumnius, Publius  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A philosopher who accompanied *Brutus in his campaign against the triumvirs (see triumviri). He recorded, perhaps in a biography, prodigies (see portents) which preceded Brutus' last ... More

women in philosophy  

Vicki Lynn Harper

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Women in philosophy are recorded in antiquity, though extant writings are few, and there is controversy over dating and authorship of texts. Most of the women whom ancient sources identify as ... More

Xenarchus (3) of Seleucia, Peripatetic philosopher, c. 30 BCE  

Myrto Hatzimichali

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Philosophy
Xenarchus taught at Alexandria, Athens, and Rome, and his acquaintances included the geographer Strabo and the emperor Augustus. He is best known for his critique of Aristotle’s fifth ... More

Xenocrates (1), of Chalcedon, disciple of Plato (1) and head of the Academy, 339–314 BCE  

Guy Cromwell Field and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Xenocrates (1) of Chalcedon, son of Agathenor, disciple of *Plato(1) and head of the *Academy from 339 to 314 bce. He is presented to us as a man of impressive personality, with a combination of ... More

Xenophanes, of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher  

Charles H. Kahn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenophanes of Colophon, poet, theologian, and natural philosopher, left Ionia (see ionians) at the age of 25, probably after the Persian Conquest in 545 bce, and led a wandering life for 67 years, ... More

Zeno (1), of Elea, philosoper and friend of Parmenides  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (1), of Elea is portrayed by *Plato(1) (Prm. 127b) as the pupil and friend of *Parmenides, and junior to him by 25 years. Their fictional meeting with a ‘very young’ *Socrates (ibid.) ... More

Zeno (2), of Citium, founder of Stoicism  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (2), of Citium (*Cyprus), (335–263 bce), founder of *Stoicism. He came to Athens in 313 and is said to have studied with or been influenced by various philosophers, notably *Crates (2) the ... More

Zeno (3), of Tarsus, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zeno (3) of *Tarsus, Stoic (See stoicism), *Chrysippus' successor as head of the Stoa in 204 bce. He had many followers, but wrote little; he had doubts about ekpyrōsis (conversion into ... More

Zeno (5), of Sidon, Epicurean, b. c. 150 BCE  

William David Ross and Dirk Obbink

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Epicurean (See epicurus), pupil of the Epicurean Apollodorus and probably head of the school between him and *Phaedrus(3). *Cicero heard him lecture in Athens in 79–78, and found him querulous and ... More

Zeno (6), of Sidon, Stoic  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy

Zeno (6) of *Sidon, Stoic (See stoicism), pupil of *Diodorus(2) Cronus and of *Zeno(2).

Zoïlus, of Amphipolis, 4th cent. BCE  

John Francis Lockwood and Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Zoïlus (Ζωΐλος) of *Amphipolis (4th cent. bce), the *Cynic philosopher, pupil of *Polycrates (2) and teacher of *Anaximenes(2) of Lampsacus; is described by the Suda as ῥήτωρ καὶ ... More

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