Richard Allan Tomlinson
Fieldwork around the church of Sant’Omobono in the Forum Boarium has produced some of the most remarkable discoveries illustrating the early phases of the city of Rome. Archaeological remains were accidentally exposed in 1937 during the Fascist overhaul of the neighborhood, when the old buildings surrounding the church were demolished. In the process of reinforcing the foundations of Sant’Omobono, the corner of an Archaic temple podium was exposed, together with remarkable architectural terracottas. Rescue excavations showed the presence of a much larger temple site, so the area was spared and left open for future investigations. Excavations at Sant’Omobono were conducted in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2010s by a variety of archaeologists, employing different methodologies and approaches. None of these investigations had been published in full by 2015, although a multitude of conflicting articles appeared. As a result, understanding of the sequence has always remained problematic and hotly debated. The main phases, as they can be reconstructed on the basis of recent work, are summarized in chronological order in the following sections.
Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75
D. W. R. Ridgway
Terramara derives from the Emilian dialect expression (‘terra marna’) for the fertile black soil that first brought a distinctive type of settlement site to the notice of 19th-cent. Italian archaeologists. It has given its name to an important culture of the Italian middle and late bronze age (c.1700–1150
The terramara settlements consisted of hut villages, often enclosed by a bank and ditch. Although some of them were clearly raised deliberately above the flood level of the surrounding plain, modern excavation suggests that the terramara sites were not restricted to low-lying areas; the relationship between the terramara sites and the palafitte (lake villages) to the north is not wholly clear.
Harold Mattingly and Dominic W. Rathbone
Richard Allan Tomlinson
Peter G. M. Brown
Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers
Transhumance, a form of semi-nomadism in which pastoralists move their flocks over long distances between summer and winter pastures. Well-attested in the Mediterranean more recently, it is rarely mentioned in ancient Greek writers (Soph.OT 1132 ff. being one exception) and its importance is debated for *pastoralism in ancient Greece, where city-state boundaries were potential obstacles to the seasonal movements of shepherds and generated disputes between neighbours over rights to summer pasture, as between the Phocians and Locrians in 395
Philip de Souza
The trireme (Gk. τριήρης, Lat. triremis) was the standard warship of the classical world for much of the time from the 5th cent.
Donald Emrys Strong
Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine
Tullianum, the underground execution cell of the *prison at Rome, flanking the *Comitium, and traditionally associated with Servius *Tullius (Varro, Ling. 5. 151; Festus 356). The derivation from tullus, a spring, is more attractive, for a spring still rises in the present floor, higher than the original. The existing chamber, once circular (diam. c. 7 m.), is built in peperino ashlar not earlier than the 4th cent.
Samuel James Beeching Barnish
William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson
Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti Agrippinae); and of entertainment structures, the Naumachiae (see