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Velabrum  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Velabrum, according to *Varro (Ling. 5. 43), the landing-place of an ancient ferry connecting the Aventine with the Palatine in Rome; more generally, an area of low ground between the Capitol and ... More

venationes  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
‘Hunts’, involving the slaughter of *animals, especially fierce ones, by other animals or human bestiarii (fighters of wild beasts)—and sometimes of criminals by animals, see below—were a major ... More

Vetulonia  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vetulonia (Etr. Vetluna), in the hills to the west of the bay that is now the Grosseto plain, was one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans). Excavation has been mainly confined to the ... More

vexillum  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vexillum, a military standard consisting of a square-shaped piece of cloth attached to a crossbar, borne on a pole. In the republic this served as the standard of the legionary cavalry, and in ... More

via Sacra  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road ... More

vicus  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vicus, ‘village’, one of a series of Roman terms for settlements of lower status than towns (such as *pagus). In administrative law the term was used for places with recognizably ... More

villa  

David J. Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Villa was the Latin word for a rural dwelling associated with an estate, and ranging in character from functional farms to the luxurious country seats of the élite (Varro, Rust. 1. 11. 1–12. 4; 3. 2. ... More

Villanovan culture  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Villanovan culture takes its name from the Bolognese estate owned by G. Gozzadini, who in 1853 excavated nearby the first of many iron age cemeteries in the modern provinces of Bologna, Faenza, ... More

Viminal  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

One of the *Seven hills of Rome. It lay between the *Esquiline and the *Quirinal.

Vindolanda tablets  

J. David Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
During the 1970s and 1980s several hundred wooden writing-tablets were discovered at the Roman fort of Vindolanda near Hadrian's Wall (see wall of hadrian); a further 400 turned up in 1993, and a few ... More

Vitruvius (Pol(l)io)  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vitruvius (Pol(l)io) (See mamurra), a Roman architect and military engineer, in which capacity he served *Caesar. He built a basilica at *Fanum Fortunae; but his fame rests chiefly on a treatise, De ... More

Vulci  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vulci (Etr. Velχ-), 20 km. (12½ mi.) north-west of *Tarquinii in central Italy, situated on a plateau overlooking the river Fiora and with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa, was one of ... More

wall of Antoninus  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Sheppard S. Frere, and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wall of Antoninus, a Roman frontier-wall 59 km. (37 mi.) long, running from Bridgeness on the Forth to Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde, built for *Antoninus Pius (SHAAnt. Pius 5. 4) in ce 139–42 by Q. ... More

wall of Aurelian  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The city wall of Rome, constructed by *Aurelian in 271–5 ce in anticipation of a sudden barbarian inroad (SHA Aure. 21. 9, 39. 2; Aurel. Vict.Caes.35; Malalas, Chron. 12. 299), and completed by ... More

wall of Hadrian  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Sheppard S. Frere, and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Wall of Hadrian, a frontier-wall (see limes) of Roman *Britain, running for 80 Roman miles (118 km.; 73 mi.) from Wallsend-on-Tyne to Bowness-on-Solway. The frontier then followed the ... More

wall of Servius  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wall of Servius, the city-wall of republican Rome, traditionally assigned to King Servius *Tullius, actually belongs to 378 bce. It is of Grotta Oscura tufa, built in headers and stretchers, 4.5 m. ... More

water supply  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The preferred source of water in Classical Greece is a natural perennial spring. Failing this, rainwater has to be conserved in cisterns, or raised from wells.Improvement of natural water supplies ... More

weighing instruments  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

The balance (σταθμός, libra, bilanx) of two pans at equal distance from the point of suspension is an invention of the earliest times; in Mycenaean tablets (see mycenaean language) it is the symbol ... More

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