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annales maximi  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Annales maximi, a chronicle kept by the *pontifex maximus. Under the Roman republic the pontifex maximus used to keep an annual record, and to publish a version of it outside the *Regia on a whitened ... More

Antinoöpolis  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A nome capital (see nomos (1)) of Middle Egypt east of the Nile, founded in ce 130 by Hadrian in memory of *Antinous (2) on a necropolis containing a temple of Rameses II. The via Hadriana ... More

Antium  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. ... More

Apennine culture  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apennine culture is the term used to describe the material aspects (mainly ceramic) of the mixed economy attested along the Apennine chain between the Bolognese and the south-east tip of peninsular ... More

Aphrodisias, school of  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The existence of an Aphrodisian sculptural school was first proposed in 1943, on the basis of numerous statues in Roman and other museums signed by sculptors bearing the ethnic ... More

Apicius  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apicius, proverbial cognomen of several Roman connoisseurs of luxury, especially in food, in particular M. Gavius Apicius (PIR2 G 91), notorious resident of the resort of *Minturnae in the Tiberian ... More

Apollodorus (7), of Damascus, Greek architect for Trajan, 2nd cent. CE  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apollodorus (7), of *Damascus, building-expert (architektōn) to whom are attributed the *forum Traiani and baths of *Trajan (Cass. Dio 69. 4: he may therefore be responsible for *Trajan's ... More

Aquae Mattiacae  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aquae Mattiacae (mod. Wiesbaden), developed in the 1st cent. ce as an auxiliary-fort (see auxilia), first as a Rhine-bridgehead and then as part of the *limes. From the early 2nd to the mid-3rd ... More

Aquae Sextiae  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aquae Sextiae (mod. Aix-en-Provence), the first Roman foundation in *Transalpine Gaul, was established as a fort by C. *Sextius Calvinus in 123 bce after his defeat of the Salluvii and in 102 bce was ... More

Aquae Sulis  

Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aquae Sulis (mod. Bath), attributed by *Ptolemy (4) to the civitas Belgarum (see belgae). The hot springs, perhaps used in the iron age, were developed from the Neronian period and ... More

aqueducts  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In a Mediterranean climate, correcting the accidents of rainfall distribution through the management of water sources transforms *agriculture by extending the growing season through the dry summer by ... More

Arae Flaviae  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arae Flaviae (mod. Rottweil), on the Neckar. In ce 74 the Roman Rhine–Danube frontier was shortened by carrying a road south-eastwards from Strasburg (*Argentorate) to the *Danube. A fort was built ... More

Ara Pacis  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ara Pacis, a monumental altar erected in the northern *Campus Martius near the via Lata (Corso), considered one of the major products of Augustan public art. It was voted in 13 bce by the senate, as ... More

archaeology, classical  

A. M. Snodgrass

Classical archaeology properly the study of the whole material culture of ancient Greece and Rome, is often understood in a somewhat narrower sense. *Epigraphy, the study of inscriptions ... More

archaeology, underwater  

A. J. Parker

The potential richness of the sea for salvage or accidental finding of sunken valuables was recognized from earliest times, but the possibility of defining meaningful groups of wrecked material or of ... More

arches  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Greek architecture openings are normally covered by horizontal lintels or beams. The first description of arched construction using voussoirs locked into place by a keystone is attributed to ... More

architects  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The names of architects are preserved in literary sources as well as inscriptions. Theodorus, architect of the temple of Asclepius at *Epidaurus, is paid at only double the level of the ordinary ... More

architecture, Roman  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Roman architecture represents the fusion of traditional Greek elements, notably the trabeated orders, with an innovative approach to structural problems resulting in the extensive exploitation of the ... More

archives, Roman  

Rosalind Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Roman archives (tabularia, from tabulae as ‘records’). Rome's early records were rudimentary: lists of magistrates (*fasti), copies of treaties, and priestly records, which were not systematically ... More

Ariminum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ariminum (mod. Rimini), on the Adriatic, was an *Umbrian and Gallic settlement, which became a Latin colony (see ius latii) in 268 bce (Vell. Pat. 1. 14). An important harbour and road-centre, ... More

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