R. A. Kaster
M. D. Reeve
R. A. Kaster
Scribonius Aphrodisius, freedman of Augustus' second wife, *Scribonia, and formerly slave of Horace's teacher *Orbilius Pupillus, wrote on Latin orthography, attacking the work and character of his contemporary *Verrius Flaccus (Suet.Gramm. 19).
Although the Latin language has no single term equivalent to the English expression “the self,” Latin literature has been understood by scholars to rely upon and engage with various concepts of selfhood or personal identity. Inquiry into the Roman self or selves is a relatively recent phenomenon, with antecedents in social scientists’ longstanding concern with culturally specific models of identity.1 Despite such precedents, classical scholars have generally focused more on the possible resemblance of the Roman self to modern Euro-American concepts than on analyzing Roman notions of individual identity on their own terms.
Perhaps the best-represented type of self in Latin literature is a rhetorical self, that is, an identity projected to the public by means of speaking, writing, and other types of social performance. Elite Romans would have received training in personal image construction as part of their literary and rhetorical education, which was explicitly concerned with the practice of and selection among various possible projections of character.
Roman historian and military tribune at *Numantia in 134–3
William Smith Watt and M. Winterbottom
John Wight Duff, Geoffrey Bernard Abbott Fletcher, and Antony Spawforth
Publius Septimius, a republican writer on architecture mentioned by Vitruvius (7. praef. 14).
R. A. Kaster
Serenus Sammonicus, prolific scholar who wrote an antiquarian work, Res reconditae (at least 5 books), addressed to *Septimius Severus and (probably) to *Caracalla, on whose orders he was murdered early in 212. He is possibly to be identified with the poet *Septimius Serenus.
R. A. Kaster
John Wight Duff and M. Winterbottom
Sermo has a variety of meanings in Latin. They include
Serranus, an epic poet who, like *Saleius Bassus (with whom he is linked by Quint. 10. 1. 89–90 and Juv. 7. 80), died prematurely.
J. H. D. Scourfield
James Frederick Mountford, Peta G. Fowler, and Don P. Fowler
Arnaldo Momigliano and Antony Spawforth
R. A. Kaster
Marcus Sevius Nicanor (late 2nd–early 1st cent.
Sextilius Ena, a Spaniard from Corduba reported by L. *Annaeus Seneca (1) (Suas. 6. 27) as reciting a poem on the *proscriptions of 43
Marilyn B. Skinner
The basic dominance-submission model of sexual relations, involving a hierarchical distinction between the active and passive roles, was the same in Greek and Roman cultures and remained unchanged throughout classical antiquity. However, we find subtle modifications reflected in the literary tradition from the Homeric age to imperial Rome. In Homer and Hesiod, heterosexual relations are the only recognized form of sexual congress, and consensual sex is mutually pleasurable. Forced sex, in the form of abduction and rape, also occurs in epic narrative. Pederasty became a literary theme in Greek lyric poetry of the archaic age. In classical Athens, discourses of sexuality were tied to political ideology, because self-control was a civic virtue enabling the free adult male householder to manage his estate correctly and serve the city-state in war and peace. Tragedy illustrates the dire impact of unbridled erōs, while comedy mocks those who trespass against moderation or violate gender norms, and forensic oratory seeks to disqualify such offenders from participating in government. Philosophical schools disagreed over the proper place of erōs in a virtuous life. While pederastic relations dominated discussions of love in philosophic works, romantic affairs between men and women received greater attention in Hellenistic poetry, in keeping with an increased emphasis on shared pleasure and reciprocal emotional satisfaction. During the late Republic and the Augustan age, Roman authors incorporated erotic motifs from archaic lyric and Hellenistic epigram into their own first-person love poems. The genre of love elegy, in which the poet-lover professes himself enslaved to a harsh mistress, became widely popular during Augustus’ reign but disappeared shortly thereafter. Meanwhile, Lucretius’ didactic epic On the Nature of Things, and Vergil’s Aeneid, a heroic account of the founding of Rome, both treat erotic obsession as destructive. In the Imperial period, elite anxieties were displaced onto concerns about gender deviance on the part of males and females alike: the figures of the cinaedus and the tribas were castigated in moralizing poetry, especially satire and satiric epigram. Roman novels focused upon the sexual escapades of marginal displaced types. Under Roman rule, on the other hand, Greek literature saw a new flowering in the Second Sophistic movement. While pederasty remained a favorite subject, hotly championed against heterosexual relations in prose treatises, the Greek novel explored a new model of heterosexuality in which premarital chastity and mutual fidelity appear to anticipate later Christian values.