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arms and armour, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Artistic representations, military treatises, other literary and subliterary references, and archaeological artefacts are the main sources of information. Pre-imperial artefacts are sparse and come ... More

Arpinum  

Edward Togo Salmon and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arpinum, in Italy, a Volscian hill-town (see volsci) in the *Liris valley, modern Arpino, with interesting polygonal walls. Rome captured Arpinum from its Samnite conquerors and gave it civitas sine ... More

Arretium  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arretium (mod. Arezzo), north-easternmost of the cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and one of the latest founded. It is not certain when it passed under Roman rule, but in the 3rd cent. bce it was an ... More

art, funerary, Roman  

Glenys Davies

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Early republican tombs at Rome have none of the decorative features of contemporary Etruscan funerary art (see etruscans), but by the mid to late republic some aristocratic tombs show a desire for ... More

artisans and craftsmen  

Cameron Hawkins

The social worlds of artisans and craftsmen were structured around skill on both conceptual and practical levels. On a conceptual level, artisans employed skill (τέχνη / ars) as a crucial ... More

Arverni  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arverni, an advanced iron age people, occupying modern Auvergne, who contested the primacy of Gaul with the *Aedui (Caes. BGall. 1. 31. 3). In 207 bce they treated with *Hasdrubal (2) (Livy 27. 39. ... More

Aspendus  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aspendus, a city in *Pamphylia whose inhabitants claimed kinship with the Argives (see hellenism; argos (1)). Linguistic evidence shows that most of the inhabitants were of Anatolian origin (see ... More

Atella  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atella, *Campanian city, in the Clanis valley. The site was inhabited from the 7th cent. bce and urbanized in the 4th. Atella was a Roman ally (see socii) by 338 but defected in 211. It ... More

Athenaeum  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Hadrian's famous institution for the study of Greek *rhetoric and letters in the centre of Rome. In the 4th cent. ce it was the setting for public *declamation in Latin as well. Its ... More

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

athletics, Roman  

Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
At Rome colourful *circus spectacles (especially chariot-racing) and *ball games were the most popular sporting activities. But Augustus promoted traditional athletics, staging athletics ... More

Atina  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atina (mod. Atene Lucana), in Italy, *Lucanian city in the Valle di Diano. *Oscan and Greek inscriptions indicate a Hellenized (see hellenism) Oscan settlement from the 5th cent. bce, but it was not ... More

Atria  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atria (mod. Adria), a coastal city in the north of the Po delta (see padus), now nearly 20 km. (12½ mi.) from the sea. From the late 6th cent. bce onwards it was an important entrepôt for Greek and ... More

Atrium Vestae  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Atrium Vestae, the whole ancient precinct next to the *Regia, east of the *forum Romanum, including the temple and sacred grove of *Vesta and the house of the Vestal virgins, although the term is now ... More

Augusta Praetoria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Praetoria (mod. Aosta), a colony founded with 3,000 *praetorians in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul (cisalpine)) by Augustus (24 bce); it was here that A. *Terentius Varro Murena had encamped the ... More

Augusta Raurica  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Raurica (modern Augst, near Basle), a colony founded by L. *Munatius Plancus in 44 bce in the territory of the Raurici. Strengthened by Augustus, with *Augusta Praetoria and ... More

Augusta Taurinorum  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Taurinorum (mod. Torino, Turin), an important Augustan colony (c.25 bce) in Cisalpine Gaul (see gaul, (cisalpine)), at the confluence of the Dora and Po (*Padus) rivers (which here became ... More

Augusta Traiana  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Traiana or Beroe (mod. Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) was a Roman city of *Thrace founded by Trajan to replace the Thracian-Hellenistic Beroe in the north of the Thracian plain, ... More

Augusta Treverorum  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Treverorum (mod. Trier), *civitas-capital of the *Treveri, developed from a settlement around a fort established under Augustus to guard a crossing of the Moselle. In the early ... More

Augusta Vindelic(or)um  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Augusta Vindelic(or)um (mod. Augsburg), probably originated in a civil settlement around an Augustan military base protecting an important crossroads-site, and was designated capital of *Raetia by ... More

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