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via Sacra  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road ... More

via Salaria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions, ... More

via Sebaste  

Stephen Mitchell

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Via Sebaste, the Roman key to the control and pacification of *Pisidia, in the southern part of the Augustan province of *Galatia. It ran from the coast of *Pamphylia (probably *Perge), through the ... More

via Traiana  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Highway built (109ce) by *Trajan, which replaced the *via Appia as the usual route between *Beneventum and *Brundisium. It touched Aequum Tuticum, *Aecae, *Herdonia, *Canusium, *Barium, and *Gnathia. ... More

via Valeria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Via Valeria, an important road that ran eastwards from Rome to its colony of *Alba Fucens (founded 303 bce), and later to Aternum on the *Adriatic. Of great antiquity, it may have ... More

Vibius Sequester  

David Paniagua

Published Online:
Apr 2019
Vibius Sequester is the author of the De fluminibus, fontibus, lacubus, nemoribus, paludibus, montibus, gentibus per litteras, a short repertoire of geographical names mentioned by Virgil, ... More

Vienna  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Vienna (mod. Vienne), a town in Gallia Narbonensis (see gaul (transalpine)), *civitas-capital of the *Allobroges. Perhaps created a colonia Latina by *Caesar, it was made a full colony by *Gaius(1) ... More

Viminacium  

John Wilkes

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Viminacium (mod. Kostolac), on the Danube east of Belgrade, was a Celtic settlement (see celts) which became a legionary fortress and city in *Moesia Superior. Its permanent garrison (probably from ... More

Viminal  

Published Online:
Dec 2015

One of the *Seven hills of Rome. It lay between the *Esquiline and the *Quirinal.

Vindobona  

John Wilkes

Published Online:
Dec 2015
On the Danube, lay in the territory of the *Boii, a Celtic people (see celts) included within *Pannonia (Superior). In the 1st cent. ce it was garrisoned by the Ala Flavia Domitiana Augusta ... More

Vindonissa  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Vindonissa (mod. Windisch, Switzerland), a prehistoric site on the lower Aar, occupied c.17 ce by Legio XIII, which was replaced in 45–6 by Legio XXI Rapax (see legion), whose violent behaviour to ... More

Viroconium  

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of ... More

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east ... More

Vix  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Vix, a Hallstatt (late 6th-cent. bce) sepulchral mound by Mont Lassois (Côte-d'Or). Its rich grave goods, including a massive bronze Greek mixing-bowl, suggest the growing influence of the ... More

Volaterrae  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Volaterrae (Etr. VelaθRi; mod. Volterra), one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans) and capital of the mineral-rich zone of central Tuscany, was established in Villanovan times ... More

Volcei  

H. Kathryn Lomas

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Volcei (mod. Buccino), in south Italy, Lucanian city (see lucania) near the Valle di Diano. It was inhabited from the bronze age, and prominent under Roman rule. It entered alliance with Rome ... More

Volsinii  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Veteres, one of the twelve cities of Etruria (see etruscans), may safely be equated with medieval and modern Orvieto and its temples (notably Belvedere, of *Vitruvius' Tuscan type), ... More

Volturnus  

Edward Togo Salmon

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Volturnus, the principal river of *Campania, a considerable stream often mentioned in ancient accounts of Samnite and Hannibalic Wars (see samnium; punic wars). It rises in Samnium and flows ... More

Volubilis  

Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Volubilis (mod. Oubili), a town in the Djebel Zerhoun plain in Morocco, 20 km. (12 mi.) north of Meknes. Already in existence in the 4th or early 3rd cent. bce, it soon became thoroughly Punicized, ... More

Vulci  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Vulci (Etr. Velχ-), 20 km. (12½ mi.) north-west of *Tarquinii in central Italy, situated on a plateau overlooking the river Fiora and with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa, was one of ... More

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