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glass  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More

glass, Roman  

H.E.M. Cool

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Glass came of age during the Roman period. Within the ancient world it had been used from the mid-second millennium bce onwards, but only for jewellery and luxury items like small perfume ... More

gynaecology  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gynaecology existed in the ancient world as a medical specialism, but its separate identity was not always permitted by wider medical theories. The significant question was this: do women have ... More

heart  

Julius Rocca

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The heart (καρδία, κῆρ) was one of the most discussed bodily parts in antiquity. This is due, not so much to any assertion that it was the centre of the vascular system, but that it was widely ... More

Hegetor  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus. The criticisms of Hegetor by *Ap.(8) of Citium (c.90–15 bce?) provide a terminus ante quem. Hegetor shared other Herophileans' keen interest in ... More

Heliodorus (3), surgeon, 1st–2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Heliodorus (3), a popular surgeon of the time of *Juvenal (who lived c. 60–140 ce; cf. Juv. 6. 373), probably from Egypt. He belonged to the Pneumatic school (see pneumatists). ... More

Heraclides (4), of Tarentum, Empiricist physician, fl. 85–65 BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Heraclides (4) of *Tarentum (fl. 85–65 BCE), a pupil of *Mantias and a renegade Herophilean (see herophilus), became one of the more influential, versatile, and theoretically nuanced ... More

Herodotus (2), adherent of the Pneumatic school  

V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Herodotus (2), pupil of *Agathinus and adherent of the Pneumatic school of medicine (see pneumatists), wrote, in the Flavian period (70–96 ce), Physician and On remedies (lost); an extant ... More

Heron, of Alexandria (1), mathematician and inventor, fl. 62 CE  

G. J. Toomer and Serafina Cuomo

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Heron of *Alexandria (1), (fl. 62 ce) mathematician and inventor, was known as ὁ μηχανικός. The following works are associated with his name. (1) Metrica, three books, on the measurement of surfaces ... More

Herophilus, of Chalcedon, Alexandrian physician, c. 330–260 BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herophilus of *Chalcedon (c. 330–260 bce), Alexandrian physician, pupil of *Praxagoras of Cos. He and *Erasistratus were the only ancient scientists to perform systematic scientific ... More

Hicetas, of Syracuse, 5th cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hicetas of *Syracuse (5th cent. bce), Pythagorean (see pythagoras(1)). Two inconsistent views are attributed to him: that the earth rotates on its axis while the rest of the heavenly bodies are ... More

Hipparchus (3), astronomer, fl. 2nd half of 2nd cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Born at *Nicaea (1) in Bithynia, he spent much of his life in Rhodes; his recorded observations range from 147 to 127. His only extant work, the Commentary on theΦαινόμεναof Eudoxus and Aratus, in ... More

Hippias (3), geometer, fl. late 3rd cent. BCE or later  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Geometer on curves called quadratrices (tetragōnizousai) for constructing the rectification of the circle and circular arcs (equivalent to the circle quadrature). The curve, earlier applied to this ... More

Hippocrates (2), of Cos, physician  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hippocrates (2) of *Cos, probably a contemporary of Socrates (469–399 bce), was the most famous physician of antiquity and one of the least known. The important early corpus of medical writings bears ... More

Hippocrates (3), of Chios, mathematician and astronomer, fl. end of the 5th cent. BCE  

Wilbur R. Knorr and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In geometry he was first to show that the cube duplication is equivalent to finding two mean proportionals between lines in the given ratio. He also constructed rectilinear figures equal ... More

honey  

Robert Sallares

Honey (μέλι; mel), the chief sweetener known to the ancients, who understood apiculture (Arist.Hist. an. 623b5–627b22; Verg. G. bk. 4) and appreciated the different honey-producing qualities of ... More

humours  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The words strictly suggest some kind of fluid substance and can be used of the sap in plants, but they are most commonly found in medical contexts. The explanation of disease—and even human ... More

hydrostatics  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hydrostatics, a special field of *statics, within the geometric theory of *mechanics, deals with the properties of weights in fluid media, and in particular with the conditions for stability of ... More

Hypatia  

G. J. Toomer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Woman learned in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy (d. 415 ce). Daughter of the mathematician *Theon(4) of *Alexandria (1), she revised the third book of his Commentary on the ... More

hypothesis, scientific  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The English transliteration of the Greek word ὑπόθεσις can conceal something of the variety of senses this term has in ancient contexts. Etymologically it suggests ‘the basis upon which something ... More

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