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Colonia Agrippinensis  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Colonia Agrippinensis (mod. Cologne), command-centre of the Rhine frontier (see rhenus), and one of the most important cities of the western Roman empire.In 38 bce Agrippa transferred the *Ubii to ... More

colonization, Roman  

A. N. Sherwin-White, Barbara Levick, and Edward Henry Bispham

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The earliest colonies of Roman citizens were small groups of 300 families at *Ostia, *Antium (338 bce), and *Tarracina (329 bce). Others were added as the Roman territory expanded, through reluctance ... More

Colosseum  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The medieval name of the Amphitheatrum Flavium, near the colossus of Nero on the site of the lake of Nero's *Domus Aurea. Begun by Vespasian, it was continued by Titus, and dedicated in ... More

columbarium  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Glenys Davies

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
(1) a Roman dovecot. These were sometimes small and fixed in gables (columina), sometimes very large tower-like structures (turres), fitted with nesting-niches in rows, perches, and running ... More

Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella (cf. CIL 9. 235) fl. 50 ce, b. *Gades in Spain (Rust. 8. 16. 9; 10. 185) author of the most systematic extant Roman agricultural manual (written c.60–5 ce) in twelve ... More

Column of Marcus Aurelius, the  

Martin Beckmann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Column of Marcus Aurelius is situated in Rome’s Campus Martius, on the west side of the ancient Via Flaminia and south of the Ara Pacis in the modern Piazza Colonna. It was probably ... More

comitia  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In Rome the *Comitium was the place of assembly. Comitia is a plural word meaning an assembly of the Roman people summoned in groups by a magistrate possessing the formal right to convoke them (ius ... More

Comitium  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The chief place of political assembly in republican Rome (Varro, Ling. 5. 155; Livy 5. 55) occupying an area north of the *forum Romanum at the foot of the Capitoline. It is associated with nine ... More

Comum  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comum (mod. Como), birthplace of the elder and the younger *Pliny, the latter of whom owned large properties there and was a notable benefactor. A flourishing centre of the south Alpine iron age ... More

congiarium  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Congiarium, from congius (a measure of capacity = 6 sextarii (see measures)), a quantity of oil, wine, etc. , distributed as a gift, later also the cash equivalent. From the time of Augustus onwards, ... More

convivium  

Oswyn Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Roman convivium was modelled on the Etruscan version of the Greek *symposium. These Italian feasts differed from their Greek prototypes in four important respects: citizen women were present; ... More

cookery  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The religious importance of *sacrifice gave cooking a powerfully expressive role in ancient society: the order of the exposing of meat to different sources of heat, especially boiling and roasting, ... More

Cora  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Cora (mod. Cori), strongly placed at the NW angle of the Volscian mountains in *Latium. Latins and *Volsci disputed its possession before 340 bce. After 338 bce it was an ally of Rome and ... More

Coriosopitum  

Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Coriosopitum (also known as Corstopitum), a Roman military centre and town on the north bank of the Tyne near Corbridge, Northumberland. The name in its restored form suggests that it was ... More

Cortona  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cortona (Etr. Curtun-), 30 km. (18 mi.) south-east of *Arretium, was an important *Etruscan stronghold with a commanding view of the Val di Chiana. The archaeological evidence indicates ... More

Cosa  

John Bryan Ward-Perkins and D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Cosa (mod. Ansedonia), situated on a commanding rocky promontory on the coast of Etruria, 6 km. (4 mi.) south-east of Orbetello. Excavation has revealed no trace of *Etruscan Cusi, which ... More

cosmetics  

Frederick Adam Wright and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Most of the aids to beauty known today were to be found in ancient times on a woman's dressing-table; and both in Greece and Rome men paid great attention to cleanliness, applying *olive ... More

court  

Antony Spawforth

Court, in mediaeval and early-modern times the ruler's household and retinue, its spatial and institutional setting, and, by extension, the ruling power as constituted by monarch and helpers in ... More

creolization  

Jane Webster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Creolization is a term referring to the process by which elements of different cultures are blended together to create a new culture. The word creole was first attested in Spanish in 1590 with the ... More

crowns and wreaths, Roman  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Crowns and wreaths were awarded by the Romans as decorations for valour, and in the republic the nature of the achievement dictated the type of award, the most distinguished being the corona ... More

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