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Hypsicles, of Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer, fl. c. 150 BCE  

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Hypsicles, of *Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer (fl. c. 150 bce), wrote: (1) ‘Book 14’ added to Euclid's Elements. This contains interesting propositions and ... More

illustrations, technical  

Courtney Ann Roby

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Ancient Greek and Roman scientific and technical works, especially in the exact sciences, were much more commonly illustrated than texts in other genres. The images in those texts ranged ... More

lead  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Is mined in part for the extraction of *silver from its ores. Some of the major sources in the Greek world were located at *Laurium in *Attica, on *Siphnos, and in *Macedonia. There were extensive ... More

Leucippus (3), Greek scientist, 2nd half of 5th cent. BCE  

David John Furley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Leucippus (3), originator of the atomic theory in the second half of the 5th cent. bce. His birthplace is reported to be *Elea, *Abdera, or *Miletus (Diog. Laert. 9. 30), but all of these ... More

lighthouses  

Nicholas Purcell

Tall monuments which might function as navigational marks were an early feature of ancient harbour-architecture (Archaic examples are known on *Thasos). The idea became celebrated with the building ... More

madness  

Esther Eidinow

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The idea that definitions of madness are culturally dependent has taken firm hold since Foucault's Madness and Civilisation, and is even recognized by the American Psychiatric Association's ... More

Mantias, c. 165–85 BCE  

Heinrich von Staden

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Mantias (c. 165–85 bce), a physician of the ‘school’ of *Herophilus, was known to the Greeks as the influential first systematic writer on compound drugs (although such drug prescriptions predate ... More

marble  

Donald Emrys Strong and Hazel Dodge

Under μάρμαρος, marmor, the ancients included granites, porphyries, and all stones capable of taking a high polish. In the third millennium bce the white marbles of the Greek islands were used for ... More

Marcellinus (1), author of Περὶ σφυγμῶν, c. 2nd cent. CE  

V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

Marcellinus (1), author of an extant work Περὶ σφυγμῶν, which incorporates much earlier work on the pulse.

Marcellus  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcellus, physician and poet from *Side, lived under *Hadrian and *Antoninus Pius. Wrote On Medical Matters in 42 books of heroic metre; a work on werewolves (see lycanthropy); a poem About Fish ... More

Marinus, c. 130 CE  

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Marinus (c. 130 ce), anatomist, credited by *Galen with reviving anatomical studies (see anatomy and physiology) at *Alexandria(1). (1) Ἀνατομικαὶ ἐγχειρήσεις (‘Practical ... More

mathematics  

Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Like all other people the Greeks counted, measured and taught such skills to their young. Such practices in the classical Mediterranean were mostly continuous with those of the ancient ... More

mechanics  

Sylvia Berryman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The ancient Greek mechanical art addressed itself to the manufacture of assorted working artifacts, which were loosely organized into categories that reflected different understandings of the ... More

Medicina Plinii  

William David Ross and V. Nutton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Medicina Plinii, an extant compilation made (probably 300–50 ce) from *Pliny(1)'s account, in books 20–32 of the Naturalis historia, of the plants and animals used for medicinal purposes. ... More

medicine  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Western literature begins with a *disease; in the first book of Homer'sIliad the god *Apollo (associated with the medical arts directly or through his Asclepiad progeny; see Asclepius) sends a plague ... More

Melampus (2), author on divination, 3rd cent. BCE  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Melampus (2) (3rd cent. bce), author of two extant works on *divination, Περὶ παλμῶν μαντικῆς (‘On Divination by Palpitation’: ed. H. Diels, Abh. Berl. Akad.1907) and Περὶ ἐλαιῶν τοῦ ... More

Menaechmus (2), geometer, fl. mid-4th cent. BCE  

Wilbur R. Knorr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Menaechmus (2) (fl. mid-4th cent. bce), geometer, disciple of *Eudoxus(1) of Cnidus, offered a solution of the problem of two mean proportionals. A text of the solution is reported in the Archimedes ... More

Menelaus (3), of Alexandria (1), mathematician and astronomer, fl. 95–98 CE  

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Menelaus (3), of *Alexandria (1 (fl. 95–8 ce), mathematician and astronomer, made astronomical observations at Rome in 98 (Ptol. Alm. 7. 3), and was known to *Plutarch (De fac. 17). The following ... More

Menestor, south-Italian Greek botanist  

John Scarborough

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A south-Italian Greekbotanist, traditionally a Pythagorean (see Pythagoras(1)) from *Sybaris (Iamb.VP 267). *Theophrastus occasionally quotes from Menestor's lost books on botany, which considered ... More

Meno  

J. T. Vallance

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pupil of *Aristotle. His summary of medical doctrines was known to *Plutarch (Quaest. conv. 8. 9. 3) and *Galen (15. 25 Kühn). Parts are thought to be preserved in the ‘Anonymus Londinensis’ papyrus, ... More

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