Carlos Amunátegui Perelló
According to tradition, during its first two and a half centuries of existence, seven kings governed Rome. Each of these promulgated regulations, which were known as the “laws of the kings” (leges regiae “royal laws”). Reports of these laws are to be found in many traditional accounts about the early history of Rome (most importantly, Dion. Hal. 2.7-29; Plut. Rom. 9.3; Cic. De rep. 2.8.14; Liv. A.U.C. 1.8), in a chapter of Justinian’s Digest dedicated to the origins of law extracted from a work of the jurist Pomponius (D.1.2.2, Pomponius, libro singulari enchiridii), and some casual statements made by antiquarians, including Varro and Gellius.
The fact that many—but not all—of the laws were attributed to Romulus and Numa Pompilius, the two most unlikely of the seven kings the tradition offers, led scholars generally to discard them as simple myths, historical anticipations (for some of the laws’ contents were repeated in the Twelve Tables), or even as fabrications of Dionysius in a political pamphlet.
The lex Agraria dating from 111
The lex Cincia, most likely a plebiscite of 204
James R. Townshend
The Lex de imperio Vespasiani (
The surviving text of the law contains eight clauses and a sanction. The beginning of the text is missing, including the preamble.
Jakob Fortunat Stagl
The law of Augustus concerning the regulation of marriage (18
The lex Iulia on jurisdiction was a complex regulation concerning both civil and criminal proceedings. The archaic procedure per legis actiones was generally abolished and substituted with the formulary proceedings. The purpose of the law was to simplify and shorten the trials.
The lex Oppia, decreed in 216