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Pulcheria, Roman Augusta, 414–453 CE  

Hugh Elton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pulcheria was a Roman empress in the early to mid-5th century ce, one of the sisters of the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II (408–450). Pulcheria spent her entire life in Constantinople ... More

Ricimer, Roman general and patrician  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
His maternal grandfather was the Gothic king Vallia (see goths), but his career was entirely Roman. He came to power after the assassinations of *Aetius(1) and *Valentinian (3) III, forcing *Avitus ... More

Rome, history, the Late Empire  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The three sons of Constantine who emerged from a co-ordinated killing of the more distant claimants at their father's death in 337 competed among themselves for pre-eminence; ... More

Romulus Augustulus, Roman emperor, 475–476 CE  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Romulus Augustulus, known as the last western Roman emperor (ce 475–6), was a usurper who was not recognized in Constantinople. He owes his diminutive name to the fact that he was still a child when ... More

Rufinus (3), grammarian, 5th century CE  

Rolando Ferri

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Rufinus is known only for a work transmitted by the manuscripts as A commentary on the metres of Terence (Commentarium in metra Terentiana), which includes a section clearly taken from a different ... More

Severus Flavius Valerius, Illyrian military commander  

Raymond Davis

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Severus Flavius Valerius, Illyrian military commander of humble birth, and friend of *Galerius, at whose wish *Maximian on abdicating (1 May, 305 ce) proclaimed him at Milan as Caesar, with charge of ... More

Sidonius Apollinaris  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Sidonius Apollinaris was a leading political and literary figure in 5th-cent. Gaul, whose career and writings are central to the period. Born at Lyons (*Lugdunum (1)) c.430, he was educated with ... More

Sozomen, church historian  

Alberto J. Quiroga Puertas

Salamanes Hermeias Sozomenus, also known as Sozomen, was a lawyer and church historian. The scarce biographical information that we have about him derives from ex silentio arguments and from the ... More

Stephanus of Byzantium  

Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Greek grammarian, probably a contemporary of *Justinian, and a publicly appointed teacher in Constantinople. Nothing is known in detail of his life except that he was a Christian. He is the author of ... More

Stilicho  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Stilicho of *Theodosius (2) I, became regent for his son *Honorius and ruler of the west ce 395–408. He sought to unify east and west, particularly up to c.400. Two attempts to quell ... More

Stobaeus, 'John of Stobi'  

Walter Manoel Edwards and Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Stobaeus (Ἰωάννης Στοβαῖος ‘John of *Stobi’), author of an anthology of excerpts from poets and prose-writers, intended in the first instance for the instruction of his son Septimius. The work was ... More

Symmachus (2), Quintus Aurelius, Roman senator, orator, and epistolographer, c. 340–402 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Roman senator, orator, and epistolographer (cf. letters, latin), and leading proponent of the pagan religious cause against the Christian emperors, was educated by a Gallic teacher and enjoyed a ... More

Tetricus, Gaius Pius Esuvius, Roman emperor  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus became emperor in Gaul in 271 ce. In the literary tradition he appears weaker than *Postumus and *Victorinus, finally betraying his own army to *Aurelian at ... More

Themistius  

Robert Browning and Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Themistius, pagan Greek philosopher, rhetorician, and senator of *Constantinople was born in *Paphlagoniac.ce 317, studying in the eastern provinces and in Constantinople, where he opened a school ... More

Theoderic (1), Gothic king of Italy, 493–526 CE  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theoderic (1), Gothic king of Italy (493–526 ce; see goths), spent ten years (aged 8–18) as hostage in *Constantinople. Made a sub-king on his return to *Pannonia in c.471, he and his father ... More

Theoderic (2) Strabo, Gothic leader, d. 481 CE  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theoderic (2), known as Strabo or the son of Triarius, led one of two Gothic groups (see goths) which united to create the Ostrogoths. By ce 471 Strabo's Goths had close relations with ... More

Theodosius (1), Flavius, father of Theodosius (2) I  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Flavius Theodosius (1), count (see comites), wealthy landowner of Cauca (mod. Coca) in Gallaecia, was a general of *Valentinian I and father of the emperor *Theodosius (2) I. In ce 367 he ... More

Theodosius I (2), 'the Great', Roman emperor  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Theodosius I, the son of count *Theodosius(1), was born c. 346 ce. He was promoted early, serving as *dux of *Moesia Superior in 374. On his father's sudden disgrace and execution in 376 he retired ... More

Theodosius (3) II, Roman emperor, 401–450 CE  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theodosius (3) II, son of *Arcadius (2) (401–450 ce) was proclaimed Augustus in 402. After his father's death in 408, Pulcheria, his pious elder sister, exercised a strong and continuing influence ... More

Triclinius, Demetrius, early 14th cent. CE  

Nigel Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Demetrius Triclinius (early 14th cent.), one of the most important scholars of his day, lived probably Thessalonica. He prepared editions of numerous classical poets, using his knowledge ... More

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