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Menodotus (3), of Nicomedia, leader of empirical school of medicine, fl. c. 120 CE  

Published Online:
Dec 2015
Menodotus (3) of *Nicomedi (fl. probably c. 120ce), follower of *Pyrrhon, pupil of *Antiochus (11) of Ascalon, and leader of the empirical school of medicine (see medicine, § 5. 3). He was ... More

metallurgy, Greek  

John Ellis Jones

Metallurgy covers all processes involving native metal or metallic ores after mining (concentration, smelting, refining) up to the production of artefacts. Understanding these depends less on ... More

metallurgy, Roman  

Jonathan Edmondson

In the Roman period most metals were obtained not in a natural state directly from mining, but as a result of metallurgical processing of compound mineral deposits (ores). Ores, once mined, were ... More

meteorology  

J. T. Vallance

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Strictly means ‘the study of things aloft’, but the term was widely used in antiquity to cover the study both of what might now be called meteorological phenomena and the investigation of ... More

Methodists  

Marquis Berrey

Published Online:
Aug 2017
Methodists were a self-identified medical sect of the 1st century bce, Imperial period, and late antiquity who shared a common method of observation and causal inference about the practice ... More

Meton, Athenian astronomer  

G. J. Toomer and Alexander Jones

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Meton, Athenian astronomer, is dated by his observation of the summer solstice, together with *Euctemon, in 432 bce (Ptol. Alm. 3. 1). He is famous for his introduction of the luni-solar calendaric ... More

milk  

Robert Sallares

Fresh milk (γάλα, lac) was not very important in the Greek and Roman diet, for climatic reasons, and many people in southern Italy and Greece cannot digest lactose in milk. However, northern ... More

mills  

Kevin Greene

Mills ‘Saddle-querns’, in which grain (see cereals) was rubbed between a fixed flat lower stone and a smaller hand-held upper stone, had been in general use for thousands of years before ... More

mineralogy  

J. T. Vallance

Published Online:
Mar 2016
The modern term for the systematic study of the character and diversity of chemical elements and compounds which occur naturally within the earth. How far the Greeks could be said to have engaged in ... More

Morsimus  

Andrew Brown

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Morsimus, son of *Philocles and great-nephew of *Aeschylus, was an eye-doctor (see ophthalmology) and also a tragic poet, but regarded by *Aristophanes(1) as a particularly bad one ... More

music  

Andrew Barker

Published Online:
Jul 2015
‘Let me not live without music’, sings a chorus of greybeards in *Euripides (HF676). Expressions such as ‘without music’, ‘chorusless’, ‘lyreless’ evoked the dreary bitterness of war, the *Erinyes' ... More

navigation  

Philip de Souza

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Navigation can be defined as the art of taking a ship successfully from one chosen point to another. From a very early stage the relatively calm, tideless waters of the Mediterranean ... More

Nechepso  

G. J. Toomer

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Nechepso, pseudonymous author, with Petosiris, of an astrological treatise in at least fourteen books, written, perhaps in Egypt, by a late Hellenistic Greek who used the Egyptian names to ... More

Nicander  

John Scarborough

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Nicander, of Colophon. Nicander says he was ‘nurtured by the snow-white city of Claros’ (Theriaca 958), and that he lives among ‘the tripods of Apollo in Claros’ (Alexipharmaca 11), indicating that ... More

Nicomachus (3), of Gerasa, Neopythagorean author, fl. c. 100 CE  

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Nicomachus of *Gerasa (fl. c. 100 ce), a *Neopythagorean author of mostly scientific works of an introductory character. Two of his works are extant: (1) Introduction to Arithmetic ... More

Nicomedes (5), mathematician, c. 200? BCE  

Thomas Little Heath and G. J. Toomer

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Nicomedes (5), mathematician (? c. 200 bce), was the discoverer of the cochloidal or conchoidal curves, by means of which he solved the problem of trisecting the angle and that of doubling ... More

numbers, Greek  

Thomas Little Heath and G. J. Toomer

Published Online:
Mar 2016
There were two main systems:(1) The ‘alphabetic’ or ‘Milesian’, probably originating in Ionia and the older of the two. It consisted of the ordinary letters of the Ionian alphabet plus ς = 6, ϙ = 90, ... More

numbers, Roman  

Joyce Reynolds and Antony Spawforth

Published Online:
Mar 2016
The numbers are based on seven signs: I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50 (formerly, before the 1st cent. bce, ↓), C = 100, = 500, ∞ (or a recognizable variant) = 1,000 (M was not used as a figure, only as ... More

Oenopides, of Chios, fl. late 5th cent. BCE  

G. J. Toomer

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Oenopides of Chios was said by *Eudemus to have ‘discovered’ the obliquity of the ecliptic and some constructions in elementary geometry. A luni-solar period (‘Great Year’) of 59 years and ... More

ointment  

Ludwig Edelstein and Michael Vickers

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Ointment (μύρον, unguentum), was used for medical and cosmetic purposes, and in religious ceremonies and funeral rites (see dead, disposal of), in which the restorative, the aromatic, the ... More

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