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alcoholism, Roman  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury ... More


Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Apicius, proverbial cognomen of several Roman connoisseurs of luxury, especially in food, in particular M. Gavius Apicius (PIR2 G 91), notorious resident of the resort of *Minturnae in the Tiberian ... More


Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
*Hadrian's famous institution for the study of Greek *rhetoric and letters in the centre of Rome. In the 4th cent. ce it was the setting for public *declamation in Latin as well. Its ... More

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus  

Eric William Marsden

Athenaeus (2) Mechanicus, author of an extant work on siege-engines (Περὶ μηχανημάτων; see artillery; siegecraft), perhaps to be dated in the 1st cent. bce or ce.

books, Greek and Roman  

H. Maehler

Books existed in *Egypt long before they came into use in Greece. Systems of writing had been invented and developed for administrative purposes in both Egypt and *Mesopotamia by c.3000 bce. While ... More

Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella (cf. CIL 9. 235) fl. 50 ce, b. *Gades in Spain (Rust. 8. 16. 9; 10. 185) author of the most systematic extant Roman agricultural manual (written c.60–5 ce) in twelve ... More

epigraphy, Latin  

Joyce Reynolds

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The study of Latin texts inscribed on durable objects, usually of stone or bronze. It is concerned both with the form of the inscriptions and with their content, and so impinges on many ... More

Iulius Atticus  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Iulius Atticus, probably of Gallic origin, wrote, in *Tiberius' time, the first specialized monograph on viticulture (*Columella, Rust. 1. 1. 14). He apparently aimed to produce *wine in ... More


P. J. Parsons

By the end of the 5th cent. bce, books were in general circulation, even if some regarded them as a fad of intellectuals like *Euripides (Ar. Ran. 943, cf. fr. 506 KA); Athens had booksellers (Eup. ... More

papyrology, Latin  

J. David Thomas

In comparison with Greek papyri, Latin papyri are uncommon, even when “papyri” is understood in a wide sense so as to include *ostraca and parchment scraps. This is so because the vast majority of ... More


Richard Seaford

Phallus, an image of the penis, often as erect, to be found in various contexts, in particular (a) in certain rituals associated with fertility, notably Dionysiac *processions (see dionysus): see ... More

Res gestae  

Nicholas Purcell

Res gestae (of *Augustus). Augustus left four documents with the Vestal Virgins (see vesta) to be read, after his death, in the senate (Suet. Aug.101). One of these was a record of his achievements ... More

Septimius, Publius  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

Publius Septimius, a republican writer on architecture mentioned by Vitruvius (7. praef. 14).

theatre staging, Roman  

Peter G. M. Brown

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The staging of the plays of *Plautus and *Terence has to be worked out almost entirely from the texts themselves; the theatres in which they were performed have not survived. (The first Roman theatre ... More