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Africa, Roman  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

The *Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bce she left most territory in the hands of *Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. ... More

Alba Fucens  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Alba Fucens, a Latin colony of 6,000 (see ius latii) founded by Rome in 303 bce, on a hill above the Fucine lake (see fucinus lacus) in central Italy. It was connected to Rome by the *via ... More

alcoholism, Roman  

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury ... More


Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Antium (mod. Anzio), in *Latium. It was occupied from at least the 8th cent. bce by people with a material culture resembling that of Rome itself. It was certainly Latin in the 6th cent. bce (Dion. ... More


John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Arverni, an advanced iron age people, occupying modern Auvergne, who contested the primacy of Gaul with the *Aedui (Caes. BGall. 1. 31. 3). In 207 bce they treated with *Hasdrubal (2) (Livy 27. 39. ... More

Britain, Roman  

Martin Millett

The province of Britannia. The oldest name of the island known to us is *Albion; the earliest form of the present name, Πρεττανία, was used by the Greeks. The Latin Britannia was in use by the 1st ... More


Albert William van Buren, Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and John Patterson

Capitol, Capitolium, or mons Capitolinus, the smallest of the *Seven hills of Rome: an isolated mass with two peaks, conventionally known as Capitolium proper and Arx. Legend associated the hill with ... More

Cestius Epulo, Gaius, senator  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Significant only as the builder of the conspicuous pyramid tomb beside the via Ostiensis at Rome (later built into the Porta S. Paolo). The tomb, with its grandiose Egyptian aspirations, and an ... More


Henry Michael Denne Parker, George Ronald Watson, and Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In the early Roman republic the infantry provided by the allies were organized in separate cohortes of varying strength, each under a Roman or native *praefectus. In the legions the cohort was first ... More


Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

colonization, Roman  

A. N. Sherwin-White, Barbara Levick, and Edward Henry Bispham

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The earliest colonies of Roman citizens were small groups of 300 families at *Ostia, *Antium (338 bce), and *Tarracina (329 bce). Others were added as the Roman territory expanded, through reluctance ... More

Column of Marcus Aurelius, the  

Martin Beckmann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Column of Marcus Aurelius is situated in Rome’s Campus Martius, on the west side of the ancient Via Flaminia and south of the Ara Pacis in the modern Piazza Colonna. It was probably ... More

damnatio memoriae  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
After the deaths of persons deemed by the senate enemies of the state, measures to erase their memory might follow. Originally there was no set package, as the phrase implies (cf. Ulp.Dig. ... More


D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Etruscans (Tyrsenoi, Tyrrheni, Etrusci), historically and artistically the most important of the indigenous peoples of pre-Roman Italy, and according to M. *Porcius Cato (1) the masters of nearly all ... More

family, Roman  

Susan M. Treggiari

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
English ‘family’ has connotations which have changed during its long history and vary according to context. Biologically, an individual human being is related to parents, through them to ... More


Andrew Drummond

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Comprised bundles of rods, approximately 1.5 m. (5 ft.) long and of elm- or birchwood, and a single-headed axe; they were held together by red thongs and carried by *lictores. An iron set from a late ... More

gladiators, combatants at games  

Garrett G. Fagan

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Gladiators were armed combatants who performed in the arena during Roman games called munera. They could be slaves, freeborn, or freedmen (ex-slaves). Slave gladiators were usually trained ... More

Iulius Frontinus, Sextus  

Brian Campbell and Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Sextus Iulius Frontinus, perhaps from southern Gaul, served as urban *praetor in 70 ce and then assisted in suppressing the revolt of *Iulius Civilis, receiving the surrender of 70,000 Lingones. ... More

papyrology, Latin  

J. David Thomas

In comparison with Greek papyri, Latin papyri are uncommon, even when “papyri” is understood in a wide sense so as to include *ostraca and parchment scraps. This is so because the vast majority of ... More


Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and Andrew Lintott

Pomerium—explained in antiquity as meaning what comes after, or before, the wall—was the line demarcating an augurally constituted city. It was a religious boundary, the point beyond which the ... More