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Piero Treves, Cyril Bailey, and Andrew Lintott

(1) Magisterial or priestly: a board of officials. (2) Private: any private association of fixed membership and constitution (see clubs, roman).The principle of collegiality was a standard feature of ... More

epigraphy, Etruscan  

Jean Turfa

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The study of the inscriptions written in the Etruscan language and alphabet, usually texts incised on stone, pottery, or metal objects, or occasionally on more fragile media such as ink-on-cloth. ... More


George M. A. Hanfmann and Roger Ling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A circular cloud of light which surrounds the heads of gods or emperors (Serv. on Aen. 2. 616, 3. 587) and heroes. The belief that light radiates from a sacred or divine person is a common one and ... More


Richard Seaford

Phallus, an image of the penis, often as erect, to be found in various contexts, in particular (a) in certain rituals associated with fertility, notably Dionysiac *processions (see dionysus): see ... More


Ian Archibald Richmond, John North, and Andrew Lintott

Pomerium—explained in antiquity as meaning what comes after, or before, the wall—was the line demarcating an augurally constituted city. It was a religious boundary, the point beyond which the ... More


Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Praeneste (mod. Palestrina), with interesting polygonal walls, occupied a cool, lofty spur of the *Apennines 37 km. (23 mi.) east-south-east of Rome. Traditionally founded in the mythical period ... More


Glenys Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Puteal, the circular stone surround of a well-head, but also the stone coping marking a place that was sacred. Thus the puteal Libonis or Scribonianum in the forum Romanum was a monument shaped like ... More


Herbert Jennings Rose

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
When *Hannibal, attempting to raise the siege of *Capua in 211 bce, made a demonstration against Rome, a shrine was erected at Rome to the unknown power which made him go back again, under the name ... More


Janet DeLaine

(1) The record-office at Rome (see archives (Roman)), possibly serving the adjacent *aerarium (treasury) of Saturn and built according to CIL 12. 737 by Q. *Lutatius Catulus(1) in 78 bce, but not ... More


Richard Allan Tomlinson

The Greek temple was the house of the god, whose image it contained, usually placed so that at the annual festival it could watch through the open door the burning of the sacrifice at the altar which ... More

templum Pacis  

Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Templum Pacis, later called forum Pacis or Vespasiani, was the precinct of the temple of Peace at Rome, dedicated by *Vespasian in 75 ce. The area (145×100 m.) was surrounded by marble ... More


Bryan Ward-Perkins

Vatican, an extramural area of the city of Rome, on the right bank of the *Tiber around the mons Vaticanus. In the early empire the Vatican was the site of an imperial park (the horti ... More

via Sacra  

Ian Archibald Richmond and John Patterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Via Sacra, the ‘sacred way’, street connecting the *forum Romanum with the *Velia, affording access to the *Palatine. According to *Varro and *Pompeius Festus, the stretch of road ... More