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Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

Was founded c.580 bce by the Geloans (see gela) in Sican territory in central southern Sicily. One of the most substantial Hellenic cities in size and affluence, it occupied a large bowl of land, ... More


Hector Catling

Amathus, a major coastal city of *Cyprus, on a hill near mod. Ayios Tychonas, 10 km. (6 mi.) east of Limassol, surrounded by extensive and much excavated cemeteries, and immediately adjacent to its ... More


James Maxwell Ross Cormack and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Amphipolis, on the east bank of the Strymon, which surrounds the city on three sides (hence its name), 5 km. (3 mi.) from its seaport Eïon; it was originally the site of a Thracian town, Ennea Hodoi ... More


D. Graham J. Shipley

Antissa, small coastal *polis in NW *Lesbos; birthplace of the poet *Terpander. A bronze age site has been explored; the Classical town originated in the early geometric period. Three ... More


Richard Allan Tomlinson

Bassae, in SW Arcadia, near Phigaleia, the site of one of the best-preserved Greek temples. This was dedicated to *Apollo the Helper (Epikourios). *Pausanias (3) says it was the work of *Ictinus, ... More


Robin Osborne

Brauron, site of a sanctuary of *Artemis on the east coast of *Attica at the mouth of the river Erasinos. It is included in *Philochorus' list of twelve townships united by *Theseus (FGrH 328 F 94). ... More


Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Buthrotum (now Butrinto, uninhabited), founded traditionally by the Trojan *Helenus on a low hill at the seaward end of a narrow channel leading from a lake, possessed fine harbours and fisheries and ... More


D. Graham J. Shipley

Calauria (now Póros), a Saronic island (23 sq. km.: 9 sq. mi.) adjacent to the Argolid, and its polis. The town lay near the island's summit (283 m.: 928 ft.); its remains, chiefly Hellenistic, ... More


W. M. Murray

Callipolis (also Callion), main city of the Aetolian tribe Callieis (a branch of the Ophiones), located in eastern *Aetolia on the upper Mournos river. Mentioned by *Thucydides (2) (3. 96. ... More


Arthur Geoffrey Woodhead and R. J. A. Wilson

A Syracusan (see syracuse) colony founded c.599 bce at the mouth of the river Hipparis in southern Sicily, near modern Scoglitti. Its mid-6th cent. fortifications enclose a vast area of 145 ha. (358 ... More


W. M. Murray

Cassope, main city of the Cassopaeans, a Thesprotian people (see thesproti) who broke away around 400 bce to become an independent tribal state. An Epidaurian inscription (see epidaurus) ... More


Catherine A. Morgan, Simon Hornblower, and Antony Spawforth

(See also Delphic oracle; Pythian Games). Delphi, one of the four great *panhellenic*sanctuaries (the others are *Isthmia, *Olympia, *Nemea), is on the lower southern slopes of *Parnassus, c.610 m. ... More


W. M. Murray

Ephyra (also Cichyrus: Strabo 7. 7. 5), a city in western Epirus near the mouth of the *Acheron river. Here *Neoptolemus (1) landed on his return from Troy (Pind. Nem. 7. 37–9) and *Odysseus came to ... More


Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Europus (also Dura), on the middle *Euphrates, founded by the *Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bce, and a *polis in the 2nd cent. bce. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in ... More


H. Kathryn Lomas

Gnathia (mod. Fasano), a Messapian port, 58 km. (36 mi.) south of *Barium, which dominated land and sea communications, handling trade with Greece. It prospered in the Hellenistic period, a phase ... More


Philip de Souza

The earliest man-made harbour facilities in the Mediterranean region were the riverside quays of Mesopotamia and Egypt, for which records go back to at least the second millennium bce. Maritime ... More

Heraclea (2) by Latmus  

Antony Spawforth

Heraclea (2) by Latmus, a city of *Caria allegedly founded by *Endymion, on the slope of Mt. Latmus, c. 25 km. (15½ mi.) east of Miletus; in antiquity it stood at the head of an Aegean gulf gradually ... More

Hippodamus, of Miletus  

Richard Allan Tomlinson and Antony Spawforth

Hippodamus of *Miletus, was the most famous Greek town-planner. He was born probably about 500 bce. Ancient authorities speak of his nemēsis or allocation of sites. Towards the middle of ... More


Hector Catling

Idalium (mod. Dhali), a small inland city of *Cyprus, in a long-populated area (perhaps the ‘Edi'al’ of the Esarhaddon prism), was 16 km. (10 mi.) SSE of Nicosia, on the south side of the ... More


Catherine A. Morgan

Isthmia (sanctuary of *Poseidon), a Corinthian *Panhellenic shrine 16 km. (10 mi.) east of *Corinth, beside the modern Athens–Corinth road. A hippodrome and hero shrine (West Foundation) lie 2 km. ... More