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Avitus, Alcimus Ecdicius  

Ian Wood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bishop of Vienne, from c.490 ce. A member of the powerful family of the Aviti, he succeeded his father, Hesychius, as bishop. His brother, Apollinaris, was bishop of Valence. He was ... More

Bede (Beda Venerabilis), c. 673–735 CE  

Scott DeGregorio

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Bede (Beda Venerabilis) was Anglo-Saxon England’s most prolific Latin writer, and indeed one of the most distinguished authors of the early Middle Ages. At the end of his most celebrated work, ... More

Benedictus Nursinus, c. 480–c. 550 CE  

Scott G. Bruce

Online publication date:
May 2016
Benedict of Nursia was an Italian abbot active in the hinterland of Rome at Subiaco and Monte Cassino in the early 6th century. He is best known as the author of a normative guide for monastic life, ... More

Cassiodorus, Roman magistrate, author of political and religious works, c. 485–c. 580 CE  

M. Shane Bjornlie

Cassiodorus was a prominent participant in the political, intellectual, and religious life of 6th-century ce Italy, and a learned scholar of the classical and Christian traditions. As a ... More

churches, early Christian  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The first Christians met in the private houses of the faithful. Gradually, as local Christian communities became more established both in numbers and in wealth, they might acquire their own ... More

Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Late antique sources remember Flavia Iulia Constantia,1 conventionally for her loyalty to her imperial relatives, both by birth and by marriage, and, more innovatively, for her Christian patronage, a ... More

Constantina, daughter of Constantine, wife of Gallus Caesar, and patron of St. Agnes at Rome  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
May 2018
Constantina, born in c. 320, was the eldest daughter of Constantine I. She was married twice, first in 335 to her cousin Hannibalianus, whose death in 337 left her widowed, and second in ... More

Constantinople  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Constantinople was founded by *Constantine I on the site of *Byzantium in 324 ce, shortly after his victory over *Licinius near by. There are hardly any sources before the 6th cent., and these are ... More

Cosmas Indicopleustes  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Cosmas Indicopleustes, fl. 545 ce, *Alexandrian merchant, Nestorian, and argumentative autodidact. His travels included *Ethiopia, but perhaps not the Indies. His self-illustrated ... More

Dracontius, Blossius Aemilius  

Alun Hudson-Williams and Frederick James Edward Raby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Blossius Aemilius Dracontius, a Christian, a lawyer and vir clarissimus (Roman of senatorial rank), well trained in rhetoric, lived in *Carthage towards the end of the 5th cent. ce. For ... More

Eustathius  

John Francis Lockwood and Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Eustathius (12th cent. ce) born and educated in *Constantinople, was deacon at St Sophia and taught rhetoric (and probably grammar) in the patriarchal school until 1178, when he became metropolitan ... More

Evagrius Scholasticus, c. 535–c. 600 CE  

Lionel Michael Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Evagrius was born in the Syrian city of Epiphania into a wealthy family that could support the extended legal study necessary to qualify as a scholasticus. This education enabled him to ... More

Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades  

H. D. Jocelyn and Gregory Hays

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A 6th-cent. Christian writer from North Africa, possibly Carthage, credited with four extant works. The Mythologiae, in three books, is a set of allegorical interpretations of pagan myths, preceded ... More

Libanius  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Libanius, born at *Antioch (1) (ce 314), died there (c.393), was a pagan Greek rhetorician whose writings embodied many of the traditional ideals and aspirations of elite life in the eastern Roman ... More

Martianus Minneus Felix Capella  

Danuta Shanzer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Composed in Vandalic *Carthage (see Vandals), probably in the last quarter of the 5th cent. ce, a prosimetrical Latin encyclopaedia of the seven Liberal Arts (grammar, dialectic, rhetoric—the ... More

Melania the Younger  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Melania the Younger, a pioneer of monasticism in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 5th cent. ce. Born into the highest circles of the Roman aristocracy, she was married in her fourteenth year to ... More

Papirianus  

R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Papirianus (date unknown, perhaps 5th cent. ce), writer on orthography cited by *Priscian and excerpted by *Cassiodorus (Keil, Gramm. Lat. 7. 158–65; cf. ibid. 216, a fragment of ‘Q. ... More

Paulinus of Nola, c. 352/3–c. 431 CE  

Dennis E. Trout

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Meropius Pontius Paulinus was a Gallo-Roman aristocrat whose social network, wealth, and education led him to the prestigious governorship of the Italian province of Campania. After ... More

Philostorgius, ecclesiastical historian, c. 368–c. 440? CE  

A. M. Nobbs

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Philostorgius, ecclesiastical historian, c. 368–c. 440? ce, born in Boryssus (*Cappadocia), into a clerical family who had been won over to neo-*Arianism (Eunomianism). By the age of 20, he was in ... More

Photius, c. 810–c. 893 CE  

Peter Barr Reid Forbes, Robert Browning, and Nigel Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The best of the Byzantine scholars and patriarch of *Constantinople in ce 858–67 and 878–86. ‘At the pressing intreaty of the Caesar (Bardas), the celebrated Photius renounced the freedom of a ... More

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