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Timotheus (3), Greek sculptor  

Gisela M. A. Richter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Timotheus (3), Greek sculptor, active during the first half and middle of the 4th cent. bce. He took part in two important monuments of which sculptural remains survive—the temple of ... More

tourism  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Well-known Greek tourists include *Solon, said (Hdt. 1. 30) to have visited Egypt and Lydia ‘for the sake of seeing’ (theōria), and *Herodotus (1) himself. Sea-borne *trade and sightseeing were ... More

toys  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
Specimens from children's tombs, and representations on Greek pottery vases provide our knowledge of ancient toys, which did not differ essentially from modern ones. For the infant there were ... More

transhumance  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
Transhumance, a form of semi-nomadism in which pastoralists move their flocks over long distances between summer and winter pastures. Well-attested in the Mediterranean more recently, it is ... More

trireme  

Philip de Souza

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
The trireme (Gk. τριήρης, Lat. triremis) was the standard warship of the classical world for much of the time from the 5th cent. bce to the 4th cent. ce. A long rowing-ship, its principal ... More

trophies  

Donald Emrys Strong

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
The act of dedicating on the field of battle a suit of enemy armour set upon a stake is a specifically Greek practice. Originally intended as a miraculous image of the theos tropaios who had brought ... More

urbanism, Greek and Hellenistic  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Urban units are to be distinguished not simply by the size of the community, but by its topographical organization, occupational pattern, and cultural sophistication. The formation of towns ... More

water supply  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
The preferred source of water in Classical Greece is a natural perennial spring. Failing this, rainwater has to be conserved in cisterns, or raised from wells.Improvement of natural water supplies ... More

weighing instruments  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The balance (σταθμός, libra, bilanx) of two pans at equal distance from the point of suspension is an invention of the earliest times; in Mycenaean tablets (see mycenaean language) it is the symbol ... More

wrestling  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
This was a popular exercise among the Greeks. They used a wide variety of holds and throws, many of which are illustrated in vase-paintings and statuettes of wrestlers. The object was to throw an ... More

Zeus in art  

Karim Arafat

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Greek Myth and Religion
Although 8th-cent. figurines may represent Zeus, he does not assume a type until early Archaic, when he strides with thunderbolt and, rarely, eagle. In the Classical period, Zeus is quieter, often ... More

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