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Sippar  

Amélie Kuhrt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Sippar (mod. Abu Habba), c. 28 km. south-west of Baghdad, source of thousands of *cuneiform tablets dating mainly c.2000–1600 bce and from the 7th to the early 5th cents. bce. The temple ... More

Siwa  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Siwa, large and fertile *oasis in Egypt's western desert, c.540 km. (335 mi.) south-west of *Alexandria (1), home in antiquity to a populous community of farmers (the Ammonioi) ruled by ... More

Smyrna  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, Antony Spawforth, and Charlotte Roueché

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Near East
Smyrna (mod. Izmir), a city on the west coast of Asia Minor at the head of the Hermaic Gulf, the natural outlet of the trade of the *Hermus valley and within easy reach of the *Maeander valley. Old ... More

spices  

Daniel Potts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Spices, from Lat. species, signifying a commodity of special value, commonly a flavoured and aromatic vegetal substance used as a condiment, most often of Asian origin. Spices were classified by ... More

Stratonice  

Susan Mary Sherwin-White and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Daughter of *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes and of Phila (daughter of *Antipater (1)). Second wife of *Seleucus I (298-294 bce), after *Apame, and then of his son *Antiochus (1) I (294–261). The marriage ... More

Stratonicea  

George Ewart Bean and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Stratonicea (mod. Eskihisar), *Seleucid foundation in the interior of *Caria, called after *Stratonice, wife and queen of *Antiochus (1) I, and probably founded by him, had a Macedonian colony and ... More

Sumerian  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Linguistics, Near East
Sumerian is the earliest known language of ancient *Mesopotamia, written on clay and stone in *cuneiform script. Unrelated to other known languages, it is agglutinative and ergative. ... More

Surenas  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Surenas or Sūrēn, name of one of the seven great Parthian families (see parthia). They ruled Seistan as vassals of the *Arsacids, and held certain hereditary rights and functions, ... More

Susa  

William Woodthorpe Tarn and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Susa, the ‘city of lilies’, was the capital of Elam, and afterwards the Achaemenid regional winter capital, where *Darius I built a palace with a large audience hall (*apadana) and a monumental ... More

Syene  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Syene (mod. Aswân), town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the *Nile below the first cataract. A customs-post on the Nubian frontier, it had important banks under the Ptolemies and military ... More

Synnada  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Near East
Synnada (mod. Şuhut), was an assize centre (see conventus(2)) in the province of Asia (see asia, roman province) and one of the most important cities of *Phrygia. In the 160s bce it played ... More

Syrian deities  

J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Almost all the deities worshipped in Greek and Roman *Syria were Semitic, ancient near eastern in origin. Despite considerable regional differences, a few main types of cult can be ... More

Syria, pre-Roman  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
This region was a satrapy (‘Beyond the River’, i.e. the *Euphrates) of the Persian empire (see persia) until it was conquered by *Alexander (3) the Great in 332 bce. On his death (323) it was ... More

Syria, Roman  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Henri Seyrig, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
The Roman province comprised besides the cities, a few of which were free, the client kingdoms of *Commagene and *Arabia, the ethnarchy of the Jews (*Judaea), the tetrarchy of the Ituraeans ... More

Taprobane  

Ian C. Glover

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Taprobane (also Palaesimundu, Salice), ancient names for Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Mentioned by *Onesicritus, *Megasthenes, *Eratosthenes, *Hipparchus(3), and *Ptolemy(4), as a large island south ... More

Taxiles  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Taxiles, eponymous ruler of the territory between the Indus and Jhelum dominated by the city of Taxila (Takshashila). He made overtures to *Alexander(3) the Great while the king was engaged in ... More

Teucer (3), of Cyzicus, Greek writer, c. mid-1st cent. BCE  

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Kenneth S. Sacks

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Literature, Near East
Wrote several books about the contemporary near east, including coverage of Pompey's settlement in 63–62. His Περὶ χρυσοφόρου γῆς (‘On the Gold-Producing Land’) does not necessarily ... More

Thebes (2), capital of pharaonic Egypt  

Joseph Grafton Milne and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Thebes (2) (ancient Egyptian name Waset, modern Luxor), sometime capital of pharaonic *Egypt, visited by *Herodotus(1) (2.143), and still an important city at the Macedonian conquest, whereafter it ... More

Tigranocerta  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Tigranocerta, city in *Armenia, in Arzanene; it was founded by *Tigranes (1) II (App. Mith.67) after 80 bce as a city in the Hellenistic style which he was building to be the centre of his new ... More

Tigris  

Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Tigris, the more easterly of the two rivers of *Mesopotamia and, together with the *Euphrates, of decisive importance for the geological, cultural, and historical development of Mesopotamia. Rising ... More

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