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Cassiodorus, Roman magistrate, author of political and religious works, c. 485–c. 580 CE  

M. Shane Bjornlie

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Cassiodorus was a prominent participant in the political, intellectual, and religious life of 6th-century ce Italy, and a learned scholar of the classical and Christian traditions. As a ... More

catacombs, Christian  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Jocelyn M. C. Toynbee, and Leonard V. Rutgers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Roman Material Culture
A term derived from κατὰ κύμβας, a locality close to the church of St Sebastian on the *via Appia, 3 miles south of Rome. The name may refer to the natural hollows across which the road passes or to ... More

Celsus, Roman author of The True Doctrine, late 2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and David Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Philosophy
Author of a comprehensive philosophical polemic against *Christianity, The True Doctrine, written probably between 175 and 181 (Origen, C. Cels. 8. 69, 71). The work is primarily known through ... More

cento, Latin  

Stephen Harrison

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature, Reception
The extant Latin tradition of cento (the replication and combination of verse lines from a previous text to make a new work) largely uses the hexameter poems of Virgil, familiar to all educated ... More

Chalcedon  

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Christianity
Megarian colony founded in 685 bce (so Euseb. Chron.) on the Asiatic side of the *Bosporus (1) opposite Byzantium (mod. Kadıköy). It was called the city of the blind (Hdt. 4. 144) because ... More

chastity, Christian  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Gender Studies
Christian Celibacy and asceticism are endemic to Christianity and are typical of the distinctive outlook on life which runs throughout much of early Christian literature. The practice of holiness, ... More

Christianity  

Jill Harries and Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Christianity began as a Jewish sect and evolved at a time when both *Jews and Christians were affected by later Hellenism (see hellenism, hellenization). Following the conquests of *Alexander (3) the ... More

Christus Patiens  

John Dewar Denniston, Kenneth Dover, and Nigel Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Greek Literature
A play in 2,610 verses describing the Passion of Jesus Christ, bearing the name of *Gregory of Nazianzus, but now usually thought to have been written by a Byzantine of the 11th or 12th ... More

Chrysostom, John, c. 354–407 CE  

Stanley Lawrence Greenslade and J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
John Chrysostom (c. 354–407 ce), born at *Antioch (1), where after studying rhetoric under *Libanius, he attended an ascetic institution. Having spent three years as a monk and two as a hermit, he ... More

churches, early Christian  

Bryan Ward-Perkins

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Roman Material Culture
The first Christians met in the private houses of the faithful. Gradually, as local Christian communities became more established both in numbers and in wealth, they might acquire their own ... More

Clement of Alexandria  

M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Clement of Alexandria was born c.150 ce, probably at Athens and of pagan parents. He was converted to *Christianity and after extensive travels to seek instruction from Christian teachers received ... More

Clement of Rome  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Clement of Rome, author of an epistle (c. 96 ce) from the Roman Church, rebuking the Corinthian Church for arbitrarily deposing clergy. This letter is remarkable, in a largely pacifist Church, for ... More

Columbanus, abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, d. 615 CE  

Michael Lapidge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Columbanus is important for two reasons: he was the earliest Irish scholar to have composed a significant corpus of writings in Latin, and he founded an austere but influential form of ... More

Commodianus  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature
Christian Latin poet, probably from 3rd-cent. Africa, but assigned by some to the 4th or 5th cent. and to other locations; perhaps of Syrian origin. In the Instructiones, 80 short poems ... More

Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017

Constantina, daughter of Constantine, wife of Gallus Caesar, and patron of St. Agnes at Rome  

Julia Hillner

Online publication date:
May 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Constantina, born in c. 320, was the eldest daughter of Constantine I. She was married twice, first in 335 to her cousin Hannibalianus, whose death in 337 left her widowed, and second in ... More

Constantinople  

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Christianity, Late Antiquity
Constantinople was founded by *Constantine I on the site of *Byzantium in 324 ce, shortly after his victory over *Licinius near by. There are hardly any sources before the 6th cent., and these are ... More

conversion  

M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
In classical Greek metanoia signifies change of heart or purpose rather than renunciation of one way of life or worship for another. Latin conversio may suggest alteration of principle, but not a ... More

Cosmas Indicopleustes  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Cosmas Indicopleustes, fl. 545 ce, *Alexandrian merchant, Nestorian, and argumentative autodidact. His travels included *Ethiopia, but perhaps not the Indies. His self-illustrated Christian ... More

crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Near East, Roman Law, Roman Material Culture
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

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