Herbert Jennings Rose and John North
The apocalyptic literature composed by Jews and Christians in antiquity purports to offer information on God's purposes by means of revelation. In the apocalypses, understanding of God and the world is rooted in the claim to a superior knowledge in which insight of the divine through vision or audition transcends the wisdom of human reason. While an apocalyptic dimension has always formed a part of Jewish religion (evident in the material in the biblical literature which speaks of the prophet's access to the heavenly council), the writing of the extant Jewish apocalypses, most of which were preserved by Christians rather than Jews (mostly in Greek or in translations from the Greek), took place in the period from the career of *Alexander (3) the Great to the end of the *Bar Kockhba Revolt; they may best be understood as the form the prophetic tradition took at the end of the Second Temple period. The apocalypses are linked to the prophetic writings of the Hebrew Bible (the book of Daniel is an example), though their emphasis on heavenly knowledge and the interpretation of dreams links them with the mantic wisdom of the seers of antiquity. All the apocalyptic texts are distinguished from the prophetic by the range of their imagery and the character of the literary genre. Most apocalypses are pseudonymous (Revelation in the New Testament seems to be exceptional in this respect) and contain heavenly revelations mediated in different ways (heavenly ascents as the prelude to the disclosure of divine mysteries, an angelic revealer descending to earth to communicate information to the apocalyptic seer). Because in most of the extant apocalypses there is a particular focus on the destiny of the world, it is often stated that they offer evidence of an expectation of the imminent end of the world, accompanied by the irruption of a new order. This is said by some scholars to contrast with a more material eschatology found in the rabbinic literature in which the future order of things evolves within history. This distinction is to be rejected as all the extant Jewish apocalypses offer an account of a hope for the future of the world which differs little from other non-apocalyptic sources.
Herbert Jennings Rose and Antony Spawforth
C. Robert Phillips
C. Robert Phillips
Artemidorus (3), of *Ephesus but called himself ‘of Daldis’ after his mother's native city in Lydia, whose chief deity *Apollo instigated his work on predictive *dreams. His Onirocritica, the product of travels to collect dreams and their outcomes and of study of the numerous earlier works on the subject, is the only extant ancient dream-book. It is of interest both for its categories of dream interpretation and for its religious and social assumptions. It was influential both in the Arab world, and in Europe from the Renaissance onwards. Artemidorus also wrote Oeonoscopica (but probably not the Chiroscopica ascribed to him).
M. B. Trapp and Simon Price
Artemon (4), of Miletus, wrote, under Nero, a work in 22 books on *dreams and their consequences, with special reference to cures by *Sarapis. He is criticized by *Artemidorus (3), see 1. 2, 2. 44, etc.
Stephen J. Harrison
Voluntary associations are attested already in early republican times, but they became important especially during the late Republic. Their role in street politics in the 1st century
Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid
Attis, in mythology, the youthful consort of *Cybele and prototype of her eunuch devotees. The myth exists in two main forms, with many variants. According to the Phrygian tale (Paus. 7. 17. 10–12; cf. Arn. Adv. nat. 5. 5–7), the gods castrated the androgynous *Agdistis; from the severed male parts an almond tree sprang and by its fruit Nana conceived Attis. Later Agdistis fell in love with him, and to prevent his marriage to another caused him to castrate himself. Agdistis is clearly a doublet of Cybele, though Arnobius brings them both into his account. Ovid (Fast. 4. 221–44) and others change many details, but keep the essential aetiological feature, the self-castration. In a probably Lydian version Attis, like *Adonis, is killed by a boar. The story of Atys, son of *Croesus, who was killed by the Phrygian Adrastus in a boar-hunt (Hdt. 1. 34–35) is an adaptation of this, and attests its antiquity, though the Phrygian is probably the older version.
Bacchanalia can be used to mean either ‘Bacchic festival’ or ‘Bacchic places of worship’, but usually translates the Greek *mysteries (orgia), with special reference to the worship suppressed by the Roman authorities in 186