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bribery, Greek  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Much Greek vocabulary for bribery is neutral (‘persuade by gifts/money’, ‘receiving gifts’), although pejorative terms like ‘gift-swallowing’ are found as early as Hesiod (Op. 37 ff.). ... More

byssus  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Byssus(βύσσος, prob. = Akkad. būṣu, Hebrew būṣ), a conspicuously fine fibre, normally of plant origin. Aeschylus (Sept.1039; Pers. 125) mentions fine tunics of βύσσος, probably *linen (flax) in this ... More

capitalism  

Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Capitalism is a contested term, both in the modern world and in historical studies; different theoretical traditions understand it in radically different ways and, hence, ... More

Carrara  

T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
White *marble*quarries in NW Italy. Perhaps first exploited on a small scale by the *Etruscans, they were further developed after the foundation of the colony of *Luna in 177 bce, which acted as a ... More

Cassiterides, 'Tin Islands'  

Eric Herbert Warmington and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
A name applied generically to all the north Atlantic tin lands, and often associated with Cornwall and the Scillies. They were said to have been known first by the *Phoenicians or Carthaginians (see ... More

cereals  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The most important component of the diet (see food and drink). The Greeks and Romans cultivated wheat, barley, oats, rye, and millets, using dry-farming methods. Greek and Roman farmers did not ... More

class struggle  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Class struggle, as a concept and phrase, is indelibly associated with the Marxist tradition of socio-historical analysis and practical political endeavour. ‘The history of all hitherto ... More

Cleomenes (3), of Naucratis, financial administrator  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In 332/1 bce*Alexander (3) the Great placed him in charge of the eastern sector of Egypt with responsibility for the fiscal system of the entire country. According to the Aristotelian ... More

clubs, Greek  

Marcus Niebuhr Tod and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Despite the large number and great popularity of clubs in the Greek world, both in the Hellenistic and in the Graeco-Roman period, literature makes surprisingly few references to them, and the ... More

coinage, Greek  

Keith Rutter

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Coinage to the Greeks was one of the forms of *Money available to measure value, store wealth, or facilitate exchange. Coins ... More

coinage, Roman  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
There are two related stories about Roman coinage: the one of its internal evolution, and the other of its progressive domination of the Mediterranean world, its use throughout the Roman empire, and ... More

collatio lustralis  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Collatio lustralis (chrysargyron), a tax in gold and silver levied every five years (later four) on traders in the widest sense. It was instituted by *Constantine, and abolished in the east by ... More

commentarii  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commentarii ‘memoranda’, were often private or businesslike, e.g. accounts, notebooks for speeches, legal notes, or teaching materials. Their public use (excluding the false ‘commentarii of the ... More

commercium  

A. N. Sherwin-White and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commercium was the right of any Latinus (see latini) to own Roman land and to enter into contracts with a Roman that were according to the forms of Roman law and enforceable in Roman courts without ... More

congiarium  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Congiarium, from congius (a measure of capacity = 6 sextarii (see measures)), a quantity of oil, wine, etc. , distributed as a gift, later also the cash equivalent. From the time of Augustus onwards, ... More

contubernium  

M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave ... More

credit  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Credit, the temporary transfer of property rights over money or goods, was central to the functioning of ancient society. The great majority of credit operations would have been informal transactions ... More

debasement, monetary  

Colin P. Elliott

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Most currency systems in classical antiquity used precious metals at standardized weights and/or fineness. Debasement describes reductions in currency standards, whether such reductions ... More

debt  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Debt, the creation of obligations in cash or kind, existed at all levels of society throughout the ancient world: from loans of seed and implements between peasants (Hes.Op. 396 ff., 453 ff.) to ... More

decuma  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In Italy, by the 2nd cent. bce, one-tenth of the grain harvest (and one-fifth of the fruit harvest) on *ager publicus was paid to the state; it was collected by *publicani. In the provinces the ... More

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