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Gaius (1), 'Caligula', Roman emperor, 12–41 CE  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon, Barbara Levick, and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Gaius (1) the emperor, ‘Caligula’ (Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus, (12–41 ce), son of Germanicus (see iulius caesar, germanicus) and *Agrippina the Elder, born at *Antium (31 August). In 14–16 he was ... More

Galilee  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Galilee first appears as the name of the northern part of Palestine, east of the Jordan, in 1 Maccabees (see maccabees). When it was still largely Gentile territory, Simon the Hasmonean (see ... More

Gessius Florus  

Howard Hayes Scullard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Roman knight from Clazomenae, married Cleopatra, a friend of *Poppaea Sabina, and thus gained the favour of *Nero who in 64 ce appointed him *procurator of *Judaea which Gessius proceeded ... More

God-fearers (theosebeis)  

Pieter W. van der Horst

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
In ancient literature (both Graeco-Roman and Jewish and Christian) as well as in epigraphic material (mainly Jewish), one finds references to persons or groups variously called theosebeis, sebomenoi, ... More

Hasmoneans  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
A family of Jewish high priests and kings, descended from Mattathias, the father of Judas Maccabaeus (see maccabees). Prominent between 165 and 37 bce, they ruled *Judaea between 142 and 63, creating ... More

Heracleopolis, Jewish politeuma  

Patrick Sänger

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
There existed, under the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt, an institution, or association, called a politeuma (“polity”). Usually the word politeuma is related to Greek city states or poleis. In this context ... More

Herod (1) the Great, c. 73–4 BCE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herod (1) the Great (c. 73–4 bce), son of the Idumaean *Antipater(6), was through him made governor of Galilee in 47 bce and then, with his brother, designated tetrarch (see tetrarchy) by M. ... More

Herod (2) Antipas  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Herod (2) Antipas, following the will left by his father *Herod(1), was appointed by Augustus tetrarch of Galilee (where he rebuilt the city of Sepphoris and founded *Tiberias) and of Peraea, a ... More

Ḥimyar, kingdom of  

Yosef Yuval Tobi

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The beginning of the Ḥimyari kingdom is reckoned at 110 bce, when the tribe of Ḥimyar split off from the Qatabān kingdom in the western Ḥaḍramawt, located in the southern Arabian ... More

Idumaea  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Idumaea, the lowland hill-country of southern *Judaea, was settled by the Edomites between the 8th and 6th cents. bce as a result of the *Nabataean Arab occupation of biblical Edom. Idumaea was ... More

Iulius Agrippa (1) I, Marcus, client king of Judaea, 10 BCE–44 CE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcus Iulius Agrippa (1) I, (10 bce– 44 ce), called ‘Herod’ in the Acts of the Apostles but ‘Agrippa’ on his coins. A grandson of *Herod(1) the Great and eventually ruler of his former kingdom. He ... More

Iulius Agrippa (2) II, Marcus, son of Agrippa I, b. 27/28 CE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Iulius Agrippa (2) II, Marcus (b. CE 27/8), did not succeed his father *Agrippa I in 44, but lived in Rome. There he supported the Jews before the emperor Claudius against the Samaritans and the ... More

Iulius Alexander, Tiberius  

Ronald Syme and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Tiberius Iulius Alexander, of an opulent Alexandrian Jewish family, was the son of Alexander the Alabarch, who gilded the Temple gates, and nephew of *Philon(4). A renegade from Judaism, he rose high ... More

Iustus  

Edith Mary Smallwood and Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Iustus, a leading citizen of *Tiberias, of moderate political persuasion, was an opponent of *Josephus' command in Galilee in 66/7 ce, during the First Jewish Revolt. After being implicated, with ... More

Jaffa  

Benjamin Isaac

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The city of Joppe/Jaffa/Yafo on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, immediately south of modern Tel Aviv, has a long history of importance as an urban centre, from the Middle Bronze ... More

Jason (3), of Cyrene, Greek historian, late 3rd–early 2nd cent. BCE  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Jason (3), of *Cyrene, wrote, before 124 bce, a Greek history in five books about Judas Maccabaeus and his brothers. The author of 2 Maccabees describes his own work as an abridgement of Jason (2 ... More

Jerusalem  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Jerusalem was repopulated and the Temple reconstructed with the blessing of *Cyrus (1), some 50 years after the destruction of 587 bce, by Jews returning from the Babylonian exile. In the 440s, the ... More

Jewish-Greek literature  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Jewish-Greek literature depends upon the Greek translation of the Hebrew Pentateuch (Torah; see aristeas, letter of), made during the 3rd cent. bce. A unique, literal style was adopted, Hebraized in ... More

The Jewish Patriarchate  

Lee I. Levine

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The Jewish Patriarch (Hebr. Nasi) was the leading Jewish communal official in the late Roman and early Byzantine Empires, in both Palestine and the Diaspora. The Patriarchate, which ... More

Jews  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Jews at the beginning of the period were an ethnic group with distinctive religious practices. In due course, the religious definition acquired new emphasis, and significant numbers of Jews ... More

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