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decuma  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
In Italy, by the 2nd cent. bce, one-tenth of the grain harvest (and one-fifth of the fruit harvest) on *ager publicus was paid to the state; it was collected by *publicani. In the provinces the ... More

dēmiourgoi  

Frank William Walbank and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Material Culture
Dēmiourgoi, ‘public workers’, are in *Homer such independent craftsmen as metalworkers, potters, and masons, and also seers, doctors, bards, and heralds. *Plato (1) and *Xenophon (1) use the word ... More

demography  

Saskia Hin

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
People’s life courses are shaped by the complex interactions of contextual factors, of individual behavior, and of opportunities and constraints operating at the macro level. Demography ... More

Docimium  

Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Material Culture
Docimium was a city in *Phrygia, about 25 km. (15 ½ mi.) north-east of modern Afyon. It was named after a Macedonian founder, Docimus, and was one of the rare Hellenistic settlements of ... More

donativum  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Donativum, in the imperial period an irregular monetary payment to soldiers, perhaps originally associated with distributions of booty. Donatives celebrated important events linked to the ... More

dyeing  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Dyeing was a well-established urban professional craft in the classical world and a branch of empirical chemistry, as the surviving Graeco-Roman dye recipe-books (PLeid. 10; PHolm.) reveal. *wool was ... More

economy, Greek  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Even if there was ‘an economy’ in ancient Greece (see capitalism), Greece itself was not a single entity, but a congeries of more than a thousand separate communities. One should therefore speak of ... More

economy, Hellenistic  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The regions brought under the control of the Hellenistic kingdoms showed little economic unity or uniformity. Land-use systems ranged from *irrigation regimes in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of Iran ... More

economy, Roman  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The economic history of Rome from the first, like all ancient Mediterranean economies, involved the interaction of the circumstances of local *agriculture with the available *labour supply in the ... More

eisphora  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Eisphora (‘paying-in’), a general word for payments made for a common cause by a plurality of contributors; and in particular the name of a property tax known in a number of Greek states and in the ... More

emporion  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
General term for ‘a trading-place’ (LSJ), as in *Strabo's reference (4. 4. 1) to the anonymous British entrepôt (presumably Hengistbury Head) used by traders from Gallia Belgica. In essence, an ... More

energy and power  

Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Energy and power are closely related concepts: energy implies the capacity to do work, and power affects the rate at which work is done (energy transmitted per unit of time). The ... More

euergetism  

Arjan Zuiderhoek

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Euergetism is the modern scholarly term, derived from the ancient Greek euergetes (benefactor), to denote the phenomenon of elite gift-giving to cities (or to groups within ... More

famine  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Catastrophic breakdowns in the production and distribution of essential foodstuffs, resulting in exceptionally high mortality from attendant epidemic *diseases, were rare in the ancient world. The ... More

fig  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The fig-tree is an underrated food source in antiquity, producing more calories per unit area than any other crop: 15,000,000 kilocalories per hectare. Though vigorous, the trees are sensitive to ... More

finance, Greek and Hellenistic  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The collective deployment of resources by the community inevitably has socio-political implications (who pays? who benefits?). But public finance in Greek states rarely had economic aims beyond the ... More

finance, Roman  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
‘Taxes are the sinews of the state’. So claimed both Cicero and the great jurist Ulpian. Despite this recognition of the central importance of taxation no systematic ancient treatment of Roman public ... More

fiscus  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Fiscus originally meant ‘basket’ or ‘money-bag’ and thence came to denote the private funds of an individual or, in an administrative context, to mean the public funds held by a provincial governor. ... More

fishing  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Fish populations of the *Mediterranean are less abundant than those of the oceans. Gradients of temperature and salinity resulting from the depth and the closure of the ecosystem, however, ... More

follis  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Late Antiquity
A bag for coins, then—by the late 3rd or early 4th cent. ce—a bag containing a fixed number of coins, then a unit of account; the value of this unit of account varied over the centuries from the ... More

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