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Cyprian, c. 200–258 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Son of rich parents probably from the upper ranks of curial society (see decuriones) rather than of Roman senatorial rank, he became bishop of *Carthage (248) soon after baptism and was quickly beset ... More

Cyril of Alexandria  

Matthew R. Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Serving as bishop of Alexandria from 412 until his death in 444, Cyril was one of the two most influential episcopal leaders of the city during Late Antiquity, second only to Athanasius in ... More

Cyril of Jerusalem  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Bishop from c. 350 ce to his death in 387 (although banished three times from his see). His 24 Catechetical Lectures are an important source for liturgical history and for the topography of ... More

Damasus I, Bishop of Rome, 366–384 CE  

Marianne Sághy

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Bishop Damasus of Rome was the builder of Christian Rome and papal power in the 4th century. Following a double election, Damasus succesfully fought the schism instigated by his rival ... More

demons in Christian thought  

Gregory D. Wiebe

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Philosophy
The background of early Christian demonology was in both Hebrew and Greek culture. Jews associated the Greek word daimōn with the false gods of the surrounding nations. This was in many ... More

Didymus the Blind  

Blossom Stefaniw

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Didymus the Blind (c. 313—c. 398) was a textual scholar and ascetic practitioner. He is not associated with any of the major ascetic settlements around Alexandria and appears to have spent his entire ... More

Dionysius (4) the Areopagite, Athenian theological writer  

Andrew Lintott and Andrew Louth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
An Athenian converted at Athens by St *Paul (Acts 17: 34). Four treatises—The Celestial Hierarchy, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, The Divine Names, and The Mystical Theology—and ten letters ... More

Donatists  

William Hugh Clifford Frend and Todd Breyfogle

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
The Donatists were members of a puritanical church of the martyrs in 4th- and early 5th-cent. Roman Africa. Their schism from the African Catholics derived from the events of the Great Persecution ... More

Donatus and Donatism  

David E. Wilhite

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
The Donatist party began around 312 ce when Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, died and was replaced by Caecilian. Caecilian’s accusers claimed that he had been ordained by a traditor, someone ... More

Dracontius, Blossius Aemilius  

Helen Kaufmann

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Latin Literature
Blossius Aemilius Dracontius was one of the most remarkable Latin poets in Vandal North Africa. He lived in Carthage around 500 ce, and combined poetry with a career in law. His major ... More

Ennodius, Magnus Felix, 473/474–521 CE  

Ian Wood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Magnus Felix Ennodius (473/4 –521 ce), from Provence, cleric of Milan, bishop of Pavia (513–21). Author of works supporting Pope Symmachus in the Laurentian schism, a biography of his ... More

Ephraem Syrus, c. 307–373 CE  

Henry Chadwick and John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Ephraem Syrus was born at *Nisibis where he lived until Jovian's surrender of the city to the Persians (363) forced him to move to *Edessa. He wrote (mainly verse) in Syriac; he could read ... More

epic, biblical  

Martin J. Brooke

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Jewish Studies
A late antique genre in which material from the Bible is versified in hexameters. Six major texts survive, the earliest being (1) the Evangeliorum libri IV of *Iuvencus. (2) The Heptateuchos of ... More

Epiphanius, c. 315–403 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Epiphanius (c. 315–403 ce), born in Eleutheropolis, Palestine. He became a monk, and in 367 bishop of *Salamis (2) (Constantia) in Cyprus. Regarding *Origen (1) as the source of *Arianism, ... More

Epistle to Diognetus  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Greek Literature
Greek Christian apology of uncertain authorship, date (perhaps 3rd cent. ce), and provenance (perhaps *Alexandria (1)). It contains an exposition of the Christian doctrine of God, of the ... More

Eusebius, of Caesarea, prolific writer, biblical scholar and apologist, c. 260–339 CE  

Averil M. Cameron

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Greek Literature
Eusebius, of Caesare (c. 260–339 ce), prolific writer, biblical scholar and apologist, effective founder of the Christian genres of Church history and chronicle, and the most important contemporary ... More

Eustathius  

John Francis Lockwood and Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Greek Literature, Late Antiquity
Eustathius (12th cent. ce) born and educated in *Constantinople, was deacon at St Sophia and taught rhetoric (and probably grammar) in the patriarchal school until 1178, when he became metropolitan ... More

Evagrius Ponticus  

Blossom Stefaniw

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
A deacon, ascetic teacher, and prolific writer, Evagrius Ponticus lived from c. 345 to 399ce. Within some strands of late ancient Christianity, his teachings were no longer considered ... More

Evagrius Scholasticus, c. 535–c. 600 CE  

Lionel Michael Whitby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Evagrius was born in the Syrian city of Epiphania into a wealthy family that could support the extended legal study necessary to qualify as a scholasticus. This education enabled him to ... More

Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades  

H. D. Jocelyn and Gregory Hays

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
A 6th-cent. Christian writer from North Africa, possibly Carthage, credited with four extant works. The Mythologiae, in three books, is a set of allegorical interpretations of pagan myths, preceded ... More

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