Albert Brian Bosworth
P. J. Rhodes
Athenodorus, of Tarsus, son of Sandon, Stoic, a friend of *Cicero and *Strabo, and, like *Arius Didymus, a court philosopher to Augustus; he addressed a work to *Octavia (2). (He is to be distinguished from Athenodorus Cordylion.) He probably came to Rome with the then Octavian in 44
Atomism, a term used of theories that posit the existence of small indivisible particles as the ultimate components of matter. The Greek term atomon, used by some ancient philosophers to describe these ultimate components, means ‘uncuttable' or ‘indivisible'. The theories in ancient philosophy that fall under the general term ‘atomism' share certain features: all posit an infinite number of these microscopic particle-type entities (atoma, atoms) as the physical occupants of the universe; these atoms are in motion through empty space, and the space itself has neither boundaries nor distinct places within it; atoms come in different varieties, which are differentiated in shape and have certain fundamental features such as solidity, resistance, texture, and possibly weight. The atom's intrinsic features never change, but when the atoms gather together to form larger bodies (either collections of several atoms of the same sort, or an assortment of different kinds) their intrinsic or primary qualities account for other secondary effects that are features of larger bodies, including the appearance of colour, flavour, and scent (what we might call secondary qualities). These derivative effects can change as the arrangement of the atoms in a body or collection of bodies change, even though the atoms themselves do not acquire or lose any properties of their own.
Atticus (c. 150–200
John F. Matthews
St Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus (354–430
R. B. Rutherford
J. L. Moles
Descendant of a prominent anti-Roman family of Hannibalic *Capua and a student of Stoic philosophy (see
Wilbur R. Knorr
C. C. W. Taylor
A character in *Plato (1)'s Gorgias, whose historicity is disputed. He attacks conventional morality as an inversion of true or natural morality, since the restrictions of conventional justice (to nomōi dikaion) violate the natural right (to phusēi dikaion) of the strong to exploit the weak.
Epicurean of the 3rd or 2nd cent.