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Vindelici  

John Wilkes and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vindelici, a people of mainly Celtic origin (see celts) but including Illyrian (see illyrii) and other elements, inhabited the Swabian–Bavarian plateau and reached from the southern slopes of the ... More

Vindobona  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
On the Danube, lay in the territory of the *Boii, a Celtic people (see celts) included within *Pannonia (Superior). In the 1st cent. ce it was garrisoned by the Ala Flavia Domitiana Augusta ... More

Vindolanda tablets  

J. David Thomas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
During the 1970s and 1980s several hundred wooden writing-tablets were discovered at the Roman fort of Vindolanda near Hadrian's Wall (see wall of hadrian); a further 400 turned up in 1993, and a few ... More

Vindonissa  

Courtenay Edward Stevens and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vindonissa (mod. Windisch, Switzerland), a prehistoric site on the lower Aar, occupied c.17 ce by Legio XIII, which was replaced in 45–6 by Legio XXI Rapax (see legion), whose violent behaviour to ... More

Vinicius, Lucius  

M. Winterbottom

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lucius Vinicius (*suffect consul 5 bce), a relation of P. *Vinicius and M. *Vinicius (see next two entries). *Augustus commented on his extempore pleading (Seneca. Controv. 2. 5. 20) and ... More

Vinicius, Marcus  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcus Vinicius (*suffect consul 19 bce), a *novus homo from *Cales in *Campania, is first mentioned as legate (see legati) of *Augustus in Gaul (25 bce). In *Illyricum (13 bce, perhaps as ... More

Vinicius, Publius  

M. Winterbottom

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Publius Vinicius (consul ce 2), declaimer and orator, son of M. *Vinicius (above). An admirer of *Ovid, he was praised for his preciseness (Sen.Controv. 7. 5. 11, 10. 4. 25). He was proconsul (see ... More

Vinius, Titus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Titus Vinius, influential associate of *Galba and his colleague as consul in 69 ce, had been imprisoned while military tribune (see tribuni militum) in Germany in 39 on the charge of ... More

Vipsania Agrippina (1), daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and wife of Tiberius, d. 20 CE  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and granddaughter of T. *Pomponius Atticus. Married to *Tiberius, she bore him a son, Nero *Claudius Drusus, but he was forced by Augustus, against his will, to ... More

Vipsania Agrippina (2), 'Agrippina the Elder', daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and wife of Germanicus  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vipsania Agrippina (2), ‘the Elder Agrippina’ (c.14 bce–33 ce), the daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and of *Iulia ((3), daughter of *Augustus). She married *Germanicus (probably in ce 5), to whom ... More

Vipsanius Agrippa, Marcus  

Geoffrey Walter Richardson, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the lifelong friend and supporter of *Augustus, was born in 64, 63, or even 62 bce of obscure but probably well-to-do family (he neglected his undistinguished family name). ... More

Vipstanus Messalla  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vipstanus Messalla, great-grandson of M. *Valerius Messalla Messallinus, military tribune in 69 ce (see tribuni militum), took temporary command of Legio VII Claudia (see legion) at the battle of ... More

Virgil, 70–19 BCE  

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro (70–19 bce), Roman poet. The contemporary spelling of Virgil's name was with an e: the first occurrence with an i is on an honorific inscription to ... More

Viriatus, c. 180–139 BCE  

Ernst Badian and Christoph F. Konrad

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Viriatus (c. 180–139 bce), a Lusitanian shepherd (see lusitania), escaped from the massacre of Ser. *Sulpicius Galba(1) (150), rallied his people, and became their war-leader (by 147). ... More

Viroconium  

Sheppard S. Frere and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Viroconium (also Uri(o)conium or Viriconium), a town in Roman *Britain (mod. Wroxeter, in Shropshire). The site, which controlled the route via the Severn valley into Wales, was the focus of ... More

Virunum  

John Wilkes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Virunum, a city in southern *Noricum near the river Glan at modern Zollfeld. It lay in the territory of the Celtic Norici, whose centre was on the Magdalensberg 1,058 metres (half a mile) south-east ... More

vis  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Latin word, means neutrally ‘force’ and pejoratively ‘violence’. It is the latter sense that is treated here. For Greece see under violence.(a) Political Violence. Apart from the major non-violent ... More

Vitellius, Aulus, Roman emperor, 15–69 CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Aulus Vitellius, (15–69 ce), Roman emperor in 69, son of Lucius *Vitellius, an influential figure under the Julio-Claudians, was friendly with *Gaius(1), *Claudius, and *Nero. Consul in 48, he became ... More

Vitellius, Lucius  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Lucius Vitellius (consul 34 ce, consul for the second time in 43, and for the third in 47), son of P. Vitellius (a Roman knight from *Luceria (not Nuceria: RE Suppl. 9. 1741), *procurator of ... More

Vitorius Marcellus, Marcus  

M. Winterbottom

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Marcus Vitorius Marcellus, *suffect consul 105 ce, from Teate Marrucinorum (mod. Chieti), dedicatee both of *Quintilian'sInstitutio (intended as a manual for his son Geta and a son of Quintilian's ... More

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