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votum  

H. S. Versnel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A vow. Both Greeks and Romans habitually made promises to gods, in order to persuade them to grant a favour stipulated in advance. If the gods fulfilled their part, the vow-maker fell under the ... More

Vulci  

D. W. R. Ridgway

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Vulci (Etr. Velχ-), 20 km. (12½ mi.) north-west of *Tarquinii in central Italy, situated on a plateau overlooking the river Fiora and with a commanding view of Monte Argentario and Cosa, was one of ... More

Vulgar Latin  

Roger Wright

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The language of the Roman Empire, spoken and written, was Latin. Like all languages spoken over a wide area for a long time, it varied greatly. Since the arrival of sociolinguistics in the 1960s, it ... More

Vulgate  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Latin version of the Bible. The first Latin translations of Scripture (Vetus Latina, Old Latin) began to appear in the 2nd cent. ce. By the late 4th cent., the situation was chaotic: some ... More

wages  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Wages, payment in cash or kind in return for labour services, are attested as early as the *thētes ... More

wall of Antoninus  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Sheppard S. Frere, and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wall of Antoninus, a Roman frontier-wall 59 km. (37 mi.) long, running from Bridgeness on the Forth to Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde, built for *Antoninus Pius (SHAAnt. Pius 5. 4) in ce 139–42 by Q. ... More

wall of Aurelian  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Janet DeLaine

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The city wall of Rome, constructed by *Aurelian in 271–5 ce in anticipation of a sudden barbarian inroad (SHA Aure. 21. 9, 39. 2; Aurel. Vict.Caes.35; Malalas, Chron. 12. 299), and completed by ... More

wall of Hadrian  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Sheppard S. Frere, and Martin Millett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Wall of Hadrian, a frontier-wall (see limes) of Roman *Britain, running for 80 Roman miles (118 km.; 73 mi.) from Wallsend-on-Tyne to Bowness-on-Solway. The frontier then followed the ... More

wall of Servius  

Ian Archibald Richmond and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wall of Servius, the city-wall of republican Rome, traditionally assigned to King Servius *Tullius, actually belongs to 378 bce. It is of Grotta Oscura tufa, built in headers and stretchers, 4.5 m. ... More

war, art of, Greek  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
War, art of, Greek, Before the second half of the 5th cent. bce, when some of the *sophists are said to have studied the art of war, the Greeks seem to have made no attempt to systematize ... More

war, art of, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The earliest Roman battle-order was probably the spear-armed and javelin-armed Italic form of the *hoplite*phalanx, a single, close-order infantry formation. In the 4th cent. bce this was replaced by ... More

warfare, attitudes to, Greek and Hellenistic  

Michel Austin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Homer'sIliad, a poem about war, does not glorify war: it celebrates martial prowess but also portrays the sufferings caused by war, and *Ares, god of war, is rebuked by Zeus as the most hateful of ... More

war, rules of  

Jakob Aall Ottesen Larsen and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
These, like much other international law (see law, international), depended on custom and showed a constant conflict between the higher standards of optimistic theory and the harsher measures ... More

water  

Johan Harm Croon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Water, in the mostly arid Mediterranean climate, by its local availability shaped patterns of settlement and, as erratic rainfall, determined harvest-fluctuations and food-shortages (see famine; food ... More

water supply  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

The preferred source of water in Classical Greece is a natural perennial spring. Failing this, rainwater has to be conserved in cisterns, or raised from wells.Improvement of natural water supplies ... More

wealth, attitudes to  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Classical societies developed a range of responses to the universal ambition of individuals to amass property and possessions. One extreme response, characteristic of societies where the wealthy had ... More

wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More

weighing instruments  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

The balance (σταθμός, libra, bilanx) of two pans at equal distance from the point of suspension is an invention of the earliest times; in Mycenaean tablets (see mycenaean language) it is the symbol ... More

weights  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and David William John Gill

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Weights of the Greek bronze age are usually flattened cylinders of stone or metal, incised circles on the upper surface indicating the unit of measurement. Other forms are the duck and the ... More

West, Western Greeks  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015

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