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wetlands (bog, marsh)  

Giusto Traina

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The most common words to designate a marsh, a swamp, or a bog are helos in ancient Greek and palus in Latin; beside these terms, less common words were also employed. Literary and ... More

widows  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In Classical Athens were expected to live under the protection of a male relative and to remarry if possible. There was often an age-gap between husband and wife, and young widows were thought to be ... More

wind  

Liba Taub

In classical times, wind was in some cases understood to be a god, or as being under the influence of a god; it was understood by some to be a phenomenon liable to prediction and/or explanation as a ... More

wind-gods  

Alan H. Griffiths

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wind-gods are attested as the object of anxious cultic attention as early as the Mycenaean period, when a priestess of the winds (anemōn iereia) is recorded on the *Cnossus tablets (see mycenaean ... More

wine, Greek and Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The grape vine, which grows naturally in the highlands between the 10° C and 20° C annual isotherms (approximately between 30° and 50° north), had appeared in a cultivated form (vitis vinifera ... More

women  

Helen King

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Almost all information about women in antiquity comes to us from male sources. Some women could read and write (see literacy), at least to the level needed for their role as guardians of the ... More

women in cult  

Emily Kearns

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Women played a prominent part in the public religious life of the Greek cities, their roles being in many respects different from those of men. Most, though not all, cults of a female deity were ... More

women in philosophy  

Vicki Lynn Harper

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Women in philosophy are recorded in antiquity, though extant writings are few, and there is controversy over dating and authorship of texts. Most of the women whom ancient sources identify as ... More

wool  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Wool (ἔριονlana), the principal textile fibre of the Mediterranean region, was taken from the coat of the European domestic sheep, descendant of the wild mouflon of western Asia. (Goat- and ... More

worship, household  

J. D. Mikalson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The domestic cult of a Greek family concerned the protection and prosperity of the house and its occupants, with daily small offerings and prayers to *Zeus Ctesius (protector of the ... More

wrestling  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This was a popular exercise among the Greeks. They used a wide variety of holds and throws, many of which are illustrated in vase-paintings and statuettes of wrestlers. The object was to throw an ... More

Xanthippus (1), father of Pericles (1), early 5th cent. BCE  

Piero Treves and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xanthippus (1), husband of *Cleisthenes(2)'s niece Agariste and father of *Pericles(1). He prosecuted *Miltiades after his unsuccessful attack on *Paros in 490–489 bce; he was ostracized ... More

Xanthippus (2), Spartan mercenary commander, 3rd cent. BCE  

John Briscoe

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xanthippus (2) was a Spartan mercenary commander who fought for *Carthage against M. *Atilius Regulus in 255 bce (see punic wars). He reorganized the Carthaginian army and annihilated the Roman ... More

Xanthus, a city of Lycia  

Stephen Mitchell and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xanthus was called the largest city in *Lycia by *Strabo (14. 3. 6, 666), a claim borne out by its extensive remains; prosperity was based on the fertile plain of the river Xanthus, with access to ... More

Xanthus (1), Greek poet  

P. J. Parsons

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Poet mentioned by *Stesichorus, who adapted many works from him, including the Oresteia; he presented *Heracles in his Homeric guise, and said that Laodice (cf. Il. 9. 145) was renamed Electra ... More

Xanthus (2), Lydian historian  

Klaus Meister

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xanthus (2), Hellenized Lydian from *Sardis, older contemporary of *Herodotus(1), author of Lydiaca in 4 books on the origin and history of the Lydian people, maybe down to the capture of Sardis by ... More

Xenagoras, 3rd or 2nd cent. BCE  

Kenneth S. Sacks and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenagoras (3rd or 2nd cent. bce), a Greek, perhaps from *Rhodes, wrote Χρόνοι (Chronologies) of the Greek world, with special interest in *Sicily and the west, and Περὶ νήσων (On islands). He is ... More

Xenarchus (1), Sicilian mime-writer  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016

Sicilian mime-writer (see mime) of the late 5th cent. bce, son of *Sophron.

Xenarchus (2), Middle Comedy poet  

Geoffrey Arnott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Xenarchus (2), a frank and lively Middle Comedy poet (see comedy (greek), middle). Eight titles survive, mainly from daily life. Fr. 1: a parody of tragic style; 4: young men's sexual ... More

Xenarchus (3) of Seleucia, Peripatetic philosopher, c. 30 BCE  

Myrto Hatzimichali

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Subject:
Philosophy
Xenarchus taught at Alexandria, Athens, and Rome, and his acquaintances included the geographer Strabo and the emperor Augustus. He is best known for his critique of Aristotle’s fifth ... More

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