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food and drink  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The ancient diet was based on cereals, legumes, oil, and wine. *Cereals, especially wheat and barley, were the staple food and the principal source of carbohydrates. They were eaten in many different ... More

food supply, Greek  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
For Greek city-states of the Archaic and Hellenistic periods the ethos of self-sufficiency (autarkeia) dominated the ideology of food supply. In reality few Greek cities ever outgrew the ... More

food supply, Roman  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The growth of Rome to a city of perhaps 250,000 inhabitants in the time of the *Gracchi and of up to one million under *Augustus, far outstripping the productive capacity of her hinterland, created ... More

freedmen/freedwomen, Greek  

David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Law
In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) as ... More

friendship, ritualized  

G. Herman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Friendship, ritualized (or guest-friendship), a bond of trust, imitating kinship and reinforced by rituals, generating affection and obligations between individuals belonging to separate social ... More

frugality (frugalitas) and parsimony (parsimonia)  

Grant Nelsestuen

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Arising from the agrarian and domestic contexts of classical antiquity, the notion of “frugality” (frugalitas) was a positive, desirable, and in many respects distinctively Roman concept ... More

fulling  

Miko Flohr

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Material Culture
The practice of fulling woollen garments was never part of an integrated textile production chain in the Greco-Roman world, though in several contexts, there were developments towards ... More

gift, Greece  

G. Herman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Material Culture
In the Homeric poems, gift-giving perhaps receives more attention than any other peaceful heroic activity. It has three outstanding features. First, gifts have an extremely wide range of ... More

gifts and giving, Roman  

Neil Coffee

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Romans not only gave gifts to express emotion and build relationships; a long-standing tradition of mutual aid gave rise to more intensive exchange of gifts and services (or reciprocity), ... More

glass  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second ... More

gold  

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Gold is rare in Greece, and the source of the rich treasures found in bronze age tombs (*Mycenae, etc. ) is unknown. The island of *Siphnos prospered in the 6th cent. bce by its gold productions; ... More

granaries, Greek  

Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
In late bronze age Assiros in Macedonia corn was kept in wicker or similar containers, in storerooms within the houses. Otherwise large terracotta storage jars (pithoi) were used, ... More

granaries, Roman  

A. Simon Esmonde Cleary

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Purpose-built structures (horrea) for storing grain and other commodities developed in the late republic for the alimentation of Rome, and later at forts for military provisions. At Rome and ... More

hellēnotamiai, 'treasurers of the Greeks'  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Hellēnotamiai (‘treasurers of the Greeks’), were the chief financial officials of the *Delian League. Their office was in *Delos until 454/3 bce, in Athens after that; but from the first they were ... More

hippeis  

John F. Lazenby and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Material Culture
In a number of Greek states the aristocracy was known as the ‘hippeis’ (e.g. *Eretria and Boeotian *Orchomenus(1); and cf. the ‘hippobotai’, of *Chalcis and, below, the Spartan élite (§ 3) and ... More

household, Greek  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Gender Studies
The household (oikos) was the fundamental social, political and economic unit of ancient Greece (Arist.Pol. 1. 2), though its precise links into larger political and economic structures changed ... More

household, Roman  

Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Gender Studies
‘Household’ is the usual English translation of Latin familia, a term to which the jurist Ulpian (Dig. 50. 16. 195. 1–5), understanding its application to both property and persons, assigned several ... More

indictio  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Late Antiquity, Roman Law
Indictio under the Principate meant the compulsory purchase of food, clothing, and other goods for the army and the court. Owing to the inflation of the mid-3rd cent. ce the ... More

industry, Greek and Roman  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Industry in the sense of hard labour (Gk. ponos; Lat. labor) the Greeks and Romans knew all too much about; total freedom from productive labour (scholē, otium) remained a governing ideal from one ... More

inflation  

Colin P. Elliott

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Inflation typically refers to rising prices. In both ancient and modern societies, inflation is sometimes difficult to identify, measure, and explain with precision. Inflation can occur in ... More

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