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God-fearers (theosebeis)  

Pieter W. van der Horst

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Jewish Studies
In ancient literature (both Graeco-Roman and Jewish and Christian) as well as in epigraphic material (mainly Jewish), one finds references to persons or groups variously called theosebeis, sebomenoi, ... More

Gregory (1) I, 'the Great', pope  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Gregory (1) I, the Great, pope 590–604ce, of senatorial and papal family; probable prefect of Rome c.573; subsequently monk; deacon, 578; apocrisiarius (lit. ‘delegate’, a church official) at ... More

Gregory (2) of Nazianzus, 329–389 CE  

Neil McLynn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Gregory (2) of Nazianzus (329–89 ce), educated at Athens with *Basil of Caesarea, remained much more committed than his friend to the value of traditional paideia, a commitment powerfully expressed ... More

Gregory (3) of Nyssa, c. 330–395 CE  

Neil McLynn

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Gregory (3) of Nyssa (c. 330–95 ce), despite the insignificance of his Cappadocian see, became the most prominent public voice of eastern Christianity during the reign of *Theodosius (2) I: he ... More

Gregory (4) Thaumaturgus, c. 213–c. 275 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Gregory (4) Thaumaturgus was born of a prominent family of Neocaesarea, Pontus (formerly Cabeira; mod. Niksar). He studied law at *Berytus (Beirut), but when visiting *Caesarea (2) ... More

hagiography  

Christa Gray

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Hagiography is a problematic yet widely used term with varying connotations; it resists narrow definition. Outside the hagiographa of the Hebrew Bible (i.e., the books other ... More

heresy  

Gillian Clark

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
The Greek word hairesis, ‘choice’ or ‘option’, was used for a school of thought in philosophy or medicine. Followers of one school often disagreed with the beliefs of other schools, but ... More

Hilary of Arles  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Succeeding his hero Honoratus in 430 ce, Hilary presided over the most prestigious see of southern Gaul until his death in 449. Its aggrandizement was based on possession of a mint, a splendid ... More

Hippolytus (2), bishop of Portus, c. 170–c. 236 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Hippolytus (2) c. 170–c. 236 ce, styled bishop of Portus and (probably) rival to Callistus of Rome (217–22), whom he reckoned a heretic because of his denial of the hypostatic identity of the Logos. ... More

Ioannes Damascenus, priest-monk and theologian, 650/675?–c. 750 CE  

Andrew Louth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Near East
Little is known of the life of John of Damascus, save what can be deduced from his taciturn writings and a few references to him in chronicles; the later Greek life is unreliable. He seems to have ... More

Irenaeus  

Anthony Briggman

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Irenaeus (b. c. 135) was installed as bishop of Lyons after a severe persecution of the churches of Lyons and Vienne took the life of his episcopal predecessor, Pothinus. He was not a ... More

Isidorus (2) Hispalensis, bishop of Seville  

Ian Wood

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Isidore Isidorus (2) Hispalensis, bishop of Seville (c.600–36), came from a Roman family of considerable influence in Visigothic *Spain (see goths): his brother Leander was his predecessor ... More

Itinerarium Egeriae  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
An account of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 381–4 ce (including visits to Egypt, Sinai, and Mesopotamia), written from Constantinople for a western audience described as ‘sorores’, ... More

Iuvencus, Gaius Vettius Aquilinus  

Martin J. Brooke

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature
A Spanish priest of noble family, born at Eliberri in *Baetica, the first exponent of *biblical epic, and arguably the earliest poet to use an established classical genre to treat explicitly ... More

Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), biblical translator, scholar, and ascetic, c. 347–420 CE  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature
Born into a Christian family at Stridon in *Dalmatia, he was educated at Rome at the school of Aelius *Donatus, and later studied rhetoric. During a stay at Trier (*Augusta Treverorum), where he had ... More

Justin Martyr, c. 100–165 CE  

William Hugh Clifford Frend and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Greek Myth and Religion
Justin Martyr (c. 100–165 ce), a Christian *apologist, flourished under *Antoninus Pius and died a martyr in Rome after his condemnation as a Christian (see christianity) by the *praefectus urbiQ. ... More

Lactantius (Lucius Caelius (Caecilius ?) Firmianus)  

James Stevenson and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Lactantius (Lucius Caelius (Caecilius ?) Firmianus also called Lactantius), c.240–c.320 ce, a native of North Africa, pupil of *Arnobius, one of the Christian apologists (see christianity). Under ... More

Leo (1) I, 'the Great', pope, 440–461 CE  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
As deacon, though an unoriginal theologian, he influenced Popes Celestine I and Sixtus III on doctrine, and served in secular diplomacy. As pope, he purged Manichaeans (see manichaeism) from Rome, in ... More

Libanius  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Libanius, born at *Antioch (1) (ce 314), died there (c.393), was a pagan Greek rhetorician whose writings embodied many of the traditional ideals and aspirations of elite life in the eastern Roman ... More

Martianus Minneus Felix Capella  

Danuta Shanzer

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Latin Literature
Composed in Vandalic *Carthage (see Vandals), probably in the last quarter of the 5th cent. ce, a prosimetrical Latin encyclopaedia of the seven Liberal Arts (grammar, dialectic, rhetoric—the ... More

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