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institores  

Jean-Jacques Aubert

Online publication date:
May 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Because of the traditional reluctance of the Roman elite to engage personally in profit-oriented economic activities other than agriculture (Cic., Off. 1.151), entrepreneurs of all kinds ... More

interest, rates of  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
As in modern, industrial society, the ancient world had a complex of rates of interest, varying across time and space. There, however, the similarity ends: ancient interest rates are more social than ... More

iron  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The new technical processes which introduced the widespread use of iron to the Mediterranean seem to have originated between the 13th and the 9th cent. bce. Although its introduction has been linked ... More

irrigation  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
*Mesopotamia (*Babylonia) and *Egypt were the main areas of the ancient world where agriculture depended on irrigation from a river rather than rainfall, although irrigated pasture and fields were ... More

kōlakretai  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Were Athenian officials in charge of the state treasury. The date of their institution is not known, but they existed at least as early as the time of *Solon. References in inscriptions and in ... More

labour  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Labour, as a factor in the production of wealth, has no equivalent in Greek or Latin. Association of the terms ponos and labor with drudgery reflects the negative attitudes of ancient élites, for ... More

landscapes, Roman  

Kim Bowes

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Ancient Geography
Roman landscapes exhibited enormous diversity, from the rolling hills of the Mediterranean heartland, to Nile marshlands, Apennine mountain pastures, and African pre-deserts. New work on ... More

latifundia  

M. Stephen Spurr

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Latifundia (large estates) ‘have ruined Italy and are now ruining the provinces’. *Pliny (1) the Elder (HN 18. 35) put latifundia at the centre of debate about the development of the Roman rural ... More

leases, agricultural  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Farming of land under some sort of tenancy arrangement goes back to a time before our historical records begin. Problems with private tenancy agreements may underlie the ‘Solonian crisis’ (see ... More

linen  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Linen (λίνον, linum), yarn and cloth, the product of the domesticated flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.), which was developed in the Mediterranean region for oil-seed and fibre from the wild Linum ... More

liturgy, Greek  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Greek The liturgy (leitourgia, ‘work for the people’) is an institution known particularly from Athens, but attested elsewhere (*Mytilene, Antiphon 5. 77; *Siphnos, Isoc. 19. 36), by which rich men ... More

liturgy, Roman and Graeco-Roman Egyptian  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
In Roman municipal law a sharp distinction was drawn between ‘honours’ (honores) and ‘public duties’ (munera: See munus), the former qualifying their holder for a seat on the council; personal ... More

logistai  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Logistai (λογισταί) in Athens in the 5th and 4th cents. bce were public auditors. Three distinct bodies with this title are known:1. In the 5th cent. 30 logistai supervised payments to and from the ... More

maritime loans  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, centred as they were on the Mediterranean, maritime transport was far more practical than land transport for long- and even medium-distance trade. Most ships ... More

markets and fairs, Roman  

Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The Forum was originally (i.a.) a market-site, the word surviving in this sense in the specialized markets of Rome (e.g. *forum Boarium), although by the 1st cent. bce macellum ... More

markets and fairs, Greek  

David Tandy

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The single Greek word for market, agora, did not originally refer to a place for exchange; rather, it was a place for the gathering of chattel (as early as Linear B, e.g., Knossos Co 903) ... More

measures  

Frederick Norman Pryce, Mabel L. Lang, and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Measures (of length), capacity, and weight were linked to water weight in ancient systems of mensuration. The basic units are recorded in near eastern sources from the early third millennium ... More

mercenaries, Greek and Hellenistic  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
For there to be mercenaries, three conditions are necessary—*warfare, people willing to pay, and others to serve. Warfare existed almost throughout Greek history, and there were probably also always ... More

mercenaries, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Contact with foreign powers such as *Carthage and Macedon exposed Rome's weakness in cavalry and light-armed troops. This deficiency she remedied principally by obtaining contingents ... More

metics  

David Whitehead

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Law
As the Greek *polis evolved it sought to differentiate, amongst its inhabitants, between insiders and outsiders. Insiders par excellence were its own members, the citizens; palpable outsiders were ... More

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