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Melania the Younger  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Melania the Younger, a pioneer of monasticism in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 5th cent. ce. Born into the highest circles of the Roman aristocracy, she was married in her fourteenth year to ... More

Melito, d. c. 190 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Melito (d. c. 190 ce), bishop of *Sardis, addressed a defence of Christianity to Marcus *Aurelius (only fragments extant), in which he sees Christ's birth as providentially coinciding with ... More

Montanism  

William Hugh Clifford Frend and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
A prophetic movement among Christians in Asia Minor. It emerged in *Phrygia, probably c.ce 172 (Euseb.Chron. under twelfth year of M. *Aurelius), since the conflicting evidence of Epiphanius (Adv. ... More

Naassenes  

David Potter

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Christian splinter group that took its name from the Hebrew word for serpent (nahash), Hellenized (i.e. turned into Greek) as naas (Hippol.Haer. 5. 1); the word in Hebrew, perhaps not coincidentally, ... More

Nemesius, fl. c. 400 CE  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Nemesius (fl. c.400 ce), bishop of *Emesa in Syria, perhaps identical with the former advocate to whom, as governor of *Cappadocia Secunda (c.386/7), *Gregory (2) of Nazianzus addressed ... More

Niceta  

Alun Hudson-Williams and Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Bishop of Remesiana (mod. Bela Palanka, former Yugoslavia) c.400 ce. Missionary to barbarians and a friend of *Paulinus of Nola, he wrote amongst other works an Explanatio symboli: an ... More

nimbus  

George M. A. Hanfmann and Roger Ling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
A circular cloud of light which surrounds the heads of gods or emperors (Serv. on Aen. 2. 616, 3. 587) and heroes. The belief that light radiates from a sacred or divine person is a common one and ... More

Novatianus  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Novatianus, Roman presbyter and ‘anti-pope’. On failing to be elected to the see of Rome in ce 251, he had himself consecrated counter-bishop to Cornelius, perhaps from a mixture of ... More

Optatus of Milevis, c. 4th cent. CE  

M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Catholic bishop from Africa, whose treatise Against the Donatists (or De Schismate Donatistarum, “On the Donatist schism”) provides our only surviving account of the origins of the Donatist ... More

Orientius  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity

Orientius, a Gaul of the 5th cent. ce, who composed an elegiac exhortation to a Christian life.

Origen (1) (Origenes Adamantius), Christian author, c. 185–c. 255 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Origen (1) (Origenes Adamantius), (probably 184 ce or 185–254 or 255: Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 7. 1, Jerome, De Vir. Ill.54) was born at *Alexandria(1) of Christian parents. Our chief source of information ... More

Orosius  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Orosius, a young presbyter who arrived in Africa from NW Spain (Braga) in ce 414; his memorandum (Commonitorium) against the *Priscillianist and Origenist heresies (see origen(1)) led *Augustine to ... More

Orthodoxy  

Richard Flower

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
The concept of orthodoxy denotes a central set of doctrines, often specified by a recognised authoritative body or set of individuals, to which any person must subscribe in order to be ... More

pagan, paganism  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The Latin word paganus means literally “one who inhabits a *pagus”: see Festus, 247Lindsay, and *Servius's comment on *Virgil's phrase pagos et compita circum (G. 2. 382). By imperial times (e.g. ... More

Palladius (2), ascetic and biographer  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Born in *Galatia in 364 ce, Palladius, like his brother and sister, adopted an ascetic life. He settled first on the Mount of Olives, where he associated with Melania the Elder and *Rufinus (2) and ... More

Papirianus  

R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Papirianus (date unknown, perhaps 5th cent. ce), writer on orthography cited by *Priscian and excerpted by *Cassiodorus (Keil, Gramm. Lat. 7. 158–65; cf. ibid. 216, a fragment of ‘Q. ... More

Paulinus of Nola, c. 352/3–c. 431 CE  

Dennis E. Trout

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Meropius Pontius Paulinus was a Gallo-Roman aristocrat whose social network, wealth, and education led him to the prestigious governorship of the Italian province of Campania. After ... More

Paulinus (2), of Pella, Christian Gallo-Roman aristocrat  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Paulinus (2) of Pella, a Gallo-Roman aristocrat, wrote the Eucharisticon, a Christian poem of thanks for his misfortunes, c. 460 ce, when in his eighties. The grandson of *Ausonius, he was born at ... More

Paul, St  

Christopher Rowland

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Jewish Studies
St Paul, a Roman citizen from *Tarsus was a convert (see conversion) from Pharisaic to Messianic Judaism as a result of a mystical experience (Galatians 1: 12 and 16) when he believed himself called ... More

Pelagius  

Philip Rousseau

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Now agreed to have been British by birth, educated in rhetoric and possibly in law, Pelagius settled in Rome after 380 ce. Noted for his *asceticism, though formally neither monk nor priest, he ... More

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