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diekplous  

Philip de Souza

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Diekplous (διέκπλους), a Greek naval term meaning ‘a sailing through and out’, is used by ancient authors to describe a common manœuvre in which individual ships, sailing together in line abreast, ... More

diolkos  

John Salmon

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Stone trackway across the isthmus of *Corinth for transporting ships and/or cargoes between the Saronic and the Corinthian gulfs. Archaeology suggests a date under *Periander; there is literary ... More

Dipylon  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
The name used to refer to the double gateway in Athens' city wall leading into the *Ceramicus and to the cemetery immediately outside the wall in that area. The gateway comprised a rectangular ... More

discus  

Robert Leslie Howland and Stephen Instone

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Throwing the discus developed from throwing the solos or weight (cf. Il. 23. 826–49), and resembled a combination of modern discus-throwing and shot-put. Surviving examples of ancient discuses vary ... More

dress  

Hero Granger-Taylor

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
In classical antiquity, items of clothing and jewellery were major personal possessions. The prominence of drapery, i.e. clothing, in Greek and Roman art reflects the importance of dress in daily ... More

Ephyra  

W. M. Murray

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Ephyra (also Cichyrus: Strabo 7. 7. 5), a city in western Epirus near the mouth of the *Acheron river. Here *Neoptolemus (1) landed on his return from Troy (Pind. Nem. 7. 37–9) and *Odysseus came to ... More

Epigonus  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Pergamene sculptor, active c.240–220 bce. Epigonus signed eight dedications at *Pergamum;*Pliny (1) the Elder, HN 34.88 credits him with numerous bronzes, including a Trumpeter and a Weeping Child ... More

epigraphy, Greek  

H. W. Pleket

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The study of inscriptions engraved on stone or metal in Greek letters. Coin-legends (see coinage, greek) are for the numismatist, whereas painted mummy-labels and ink-written texts on *ostraca, ... More

epinētron ,  

Jenifer Neils

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture

Erechtheum  

Theodore Fyfe, Richard Ernest Wycherley, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Ancient name for a shrine identified by most (but not all) scholars with the third outstanding building on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 421 bce and finished, after a lapse, in 407 bce; ... More

Euphranor, Greek sculptor and painter, active c. 370–330 BCE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Only his colossal marble *Apollo Patrous has survived. A virtuoso all-rounder, he also made personifications (Aretē, Hellas, i.e. Virtue and Greece), heroes (*Achilles, *Paris) and portraits (*Philip ... More

Europus  

Margaret Stephana Drower, Eric William Gray, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Greek Material Culture
Europus (also Dura), on the middle *Euphrates, founded by the *Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bce, and a *polis in the 2nd cent. bce. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in ... More

Eutychides, Sicyonian sculptor  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Sicyonian sculptor, pupil of *Lysippus (2), active c.330–290 bce. Famed for his *Tyche for *Antioch (1) (founded in 300), known in many copies and widely imitated by other cities; wearing a mural ... More

farm buildings, Greek  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
There are no distinct agricultural buildings in Archaic and Classical Greece: those who exploited the land lived in and worked from houses indistinguishable from those inhabited by others who gained ... More

fortifications, Greek  

Ian Archibald Richmond, Eric William Marsden, and Richard Allan Tomlinson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the Aegean area small towns with perimeter walls appear early in the bronze age (Khalandriani). More usual is the fortified acropolis, increasingly developed in the troubled times of the late ... More

furniture  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture, Roman Material Culture
The table, chair, and couch are the central canon of ancient furnishings. Their principal characteristic (by contrast with early modern and modern furnishings) is portability, essential in the ... More

games  

Frederick Adam Wright and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
One of the earliest games played in Greece, if we may believe *Athenaeus (1), was marbles: the suitors of *Penelope shot their alleys in turn against another marble, representing the queen; ... More

gems  

Frederick Norman Pryce, David Edward Eichholz, and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Precious stones were valued in antiquity as possessing magical and medicinal virtues, as ornaments, and as seals when engraved with a device. Such engravings (intaglios) in soft media like steatite ... More

gift, Greece  

G. Herman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Material Culture
In the Homeric poems, gift-giving perhaps receives more attention than any other peaceful heroic activity. It has three outstanding features. First, gifts have an extremely wide range of ... More

Glycon (2), Athenian sculptor, early 3rd cent. CE  

Andrew F. Stewart

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Material Culture
Glycon (2) Athenian sculptor (early 3rd cent. ce), known from his signature on the Farnese Hercules in Naples, found in the baths of Caracalla. The statue is a version of a late 4th-cent. ... More

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