M. T. Griffin
Albert Brian Bosworth
Demetrius (3) of *Phaleron (b. c. 350
Moral treatises, popular tales, declamations, histories, literary criticism, rhetoric, and collections of letters, fables, and proverbs. Though an outstanding orator, Demetrius produced mainly a superficial amalgam of philosophy and rhetoric. He assisted his fellow Peripatetics, and under him Athens enjoyed relative peace.
David John Furley and C. C. W. Taylor
In *Thrace, b. 460–57
Diogenes Laertius 9. 46–9 mentions 70 titles, arranged in tetralogies by *Thrasyllus like the works of Plato, and classified as follows: Ethics, Physics, Unclassified, Mathematics, Music (which includes philological and literary criticism), Technical, and Notes. None of these works survives. Of his physical theories, on which his fame rests, only meagre quotations and summaries remain; the majority of texts that have come down to us under his name are brief and undistinguished moral maxims.
William David Ross and Antony Spawforth
Cynic philosopher, known mainly by the life of him ascribed to Lucian. He was from a wealthy family but renounced his inheritance; among his teachers was *Epictetus. Partly itinerant, with a period of residence in Athens, he dispensed advice to individuals and to cities. He starved himself to death when nearly 100 years old; Athens gave him a public burial.
Gregory D. Wiebe
The background of early Christian demonology was in both Hebrew and Greek culture. Jews associated the Greek word daimōn with the false gods of the surrounding nations. This was in many ways an intuitive application of the Greek term. It carried the sense of ambivalent divine or semi-divine power, which significant philosophical traditions understood to mediate between humans and gods. The New Testament carries this theme, though its focus is more on Christ’s exorcisms of demons, and his gift of that power to his disciples, with the early church tying the two together in the theological literature, as well as baptismal exorcisms and renunciations of the devil and idolatry.
Demons were widely thought to have aerial bodies, which allowed them to perform various marvels, like foretelling the future. They were ultimately taken to be fallen angels with Satan as their leader, though this was not a given early in the tradition. While the Christian understanding was that Christ had defeated them on the cross, this was not taken to preclude the ongoing influence of demons in human affairs prior to the final judgement. Indeed, they constituted a significant moral problem for the Christian life, which absolutely opposed them. For Christians, Christ and the demons were the two sides of the fundamental dilemma of every human soul. The problem of demons manifested differently depending on the context, whether in its encounter with false religion, from idolatry to the persecutions the gods inspired; or in the innumerable tempting thoughts encountered in the pursuit of ascetic discipline.
As one of the most ancient Greek papyri ever found (it dates back to the second half of the 4th century
J. L. Moles
M. B. Trapp
Dio Cocceianus, later surnamed Chrysostom (c.40/50-110/120
Diodorus (2) Cronus, of *Iasus (died c. 284
His ‘master argument’ (κυριεύων λόγος), which established his definition of ‘possible’ as ‘what is or will be true’, set the terms of the Hellenistic debate about modality (see Cic. Fat.). He gave his own account of a valid conditional, as one which neither was nor is able to have a true antecedent and a false consequent.
J. L. Moles
Epicurean of uncertain date, but probably identical with the author of a book on ποιητικὰ ζητήματα or ‘poetical inquiries’ (who fl. c.150–100
Diogenes of *Oenoanda in Lycia (near mod. Incealiler in Turkey), author of a massive Greek inscription presenting basic doctrines of Epicureanism. The inscription was carved in a *stoa, probably in the 2nd cent.
The inscription occupied several courses of a wall c.80 m. (87 yds.) long. In the lowest inscribed course was a treatise on ethics dealing (inter alia) with pleasure, pain, fear, desire, dreams, necessity, and free will; beneath its columns was inscribed a selection of Epicurus' Primary Tenets and other maxims. Immediately above was a treatise on physics, the surviving sections of which include criticisms of rival schools and discussions of epistemology, the origins of civilization and language, astronomy, and theology. Above these main treatises were more maxims, letters of Epicurus (one, addressed to his mother, concerns her anxious dreams), at least three letters written by Diogenes to Epicurean friends, and Diogenes' defence of old age. Fragments survive also of Diogenes' instructions to his friends.
Herbert Strainge Long and Robert Sharples
Diogenes (6) Laertius, also called Laërtius Diogenes, author of an extant compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from *Thales to *Epicurus. Since he omits *Neoplatonism and mentions no philosopher after Saturninus (a Pyrrhonian sceptic of the 2nd cent.
After an introduction on some non-Greek ‘thinkers’ such as the magi (see
William David Ross
*Eusebius quotes many passages from his polemic against Chrysippus' doctrine of fate. His date is unknown, but he probably belongs to the 2nd cent.