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Demetrius (19), 'the Cynic', philosopher, 1st cent. CE  

M. T. Griffin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
The *Cynic lived in Rome under *Gaius (1), *Nero, and *Vespasian and was friendly with the Stoic philosopher L. *Annaeus Seneca (2). He was probably exiled to Greece under Nero (66 ce) but returned ... More

Demetrius (3), of Phaleron, Athenian Peripatetic philosopher and statesman, b. c. 350 BCE  

Albert Brian Bosworth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Demetrius (3) of *Phaleron (b. c. 350 bce), son of Phanostratus, Athenian *Peripatetic philosopher (pupil of *Theophrastus) and statesman, began his political life in 325/4 and was probably ... More

Democritus, of Abdera  

David John Furley and C. C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
In *Thrace, b. 460–57 bce (Apollod. in Diog. Laert. 9. 41), 40 years after *Anaxagoras according to his own statement quoted by *Diogenes (6). He travelled widely, according to various ... More

Demonax, of Cyprus, Cynic philosopher, 2nd cent. CE  

William David Ross and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Cynic philosopher, known mainly by the life of him ascribed to Lucian. He was from a wealthy family but renounced his inheritance; among his teachers was *Epictetus. Partly itinerant, with ... More

demons in Christian thought  

Gregory D. Wiebe

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Philosophy
The background of early Christian demonology was in both Hebrew and Greek culture. Jews associated the Greek word daimōn with the false gods of the surrounding nations. This was in many ... More

Derveni papyrus  

Valeria Piano

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Literature, Greek Myth and Religion, Philosophy
As one of the most ancient Greek papyri ever found (it dates back to the second half of the 4th century bce), and given the length of its extant part, the Derveni papyrus effectively ... More

dialectic  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Dialectic, διαλεκτική (sc. ἐπιστήμη or τέχνη): the science of conducting a philosophical dialogue (διαλέγεσθαι, ‘to converse’) by exploring the consequences of premises asserted or conceded by an ... More

diatribe  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Modern term for works of Greek or Roman popular philosophy, generally implying the following: that they are direct transcriptions or literary developments of addresses given by *Cynic or Stoic (see ... More

Dicaearchus  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Literature, Philosophy
Dicaearchus of *Messana, Greek polymath and prolific writer, pupil of *Aristotle and contemporary of *Theophrastus and *Aristoxenus: fl. c.320–300 bce. He spent some of his life in the *Peloponnese. ... More

Diocles (5), of Magnesia, historian of philosophy  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diocles of *Magnesia (1 or *2), mid to late 1st cent. bce, historian of philosophy. Diocles' two attested works, the doxographical Survey of the Philosophers (Ἐπιδρομὴ τῶν φιλοσόφων) and the ... More

Dio Cocceianus  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek Literature, Philosophy
Dio Cocceianus, later surnamed Chrysostom (c.40/50-110/120 ce), Greek orator, writer, local politician and moralist, pursued a double career, as member of the governing elite of his home ... More

Diodorus (2) Cronus, dialectician  

D. Sedley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diodorus (2) Cronus, of *Iasus (died c. 284 bce), virtuoso dialectician and leading member of the Dialectical school (see Megarian school). His pupils included the logician *Philon (6), the ... More

Diogenes (1), of Apollonia, Greek Presocratic philosopher  

Malcolm Schofield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diogenes (1), of Apollonia (on the Black or *Euxine Sea), is generally reckoned the last of the Presocratic philosophers (cf. *Theophrastus, Phys. op. fr. 2) but evidently himself ‘paid no attention ... More

Diogenes (2), 'the Cynic', c. 412/403–c. 324/321 BCE  

J. L. Moles

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
The general distortions in the ancient traditions about Cynicism (‘doggishness’) multiply in the case of Diogenes. Ancient and modern reactions range from appreciation of his wit to admiration for ... More

Diogenes (3), of Babylon, Stoic philosopher, c. 240–152 BCE  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diogenes (3) of *Babylon (c. 240–152 bce), succeeded *Zeno (3) of Tarsus as head of the Stoa (see Stoicism). His visit to Rome in 156–155 stimulated interest in Stoicism. *Panaetius was his pupil. He ... More

Diogenes (4), of Tarsus, Epicurean  

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Epicurean of uncertain date, but probably identical with the author of a book on ποιητικὰ ζητήματα or ‘poetical inquiries’ (who fl. c.150–100 bce): Strabo 14. 5. 15; Diog. Laert. 6. 81. ... More

Diogenes (5), of Oenoanda in Lycia, Greek Epicurean  

David Konstan

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diogenes of *Oenoanda in Lycia (near mod. Incealiler in Turkey), author of a massive Greek inscription presenting basic doctrines of Epicureanism. The inscription was carved in a *stoa, ... More

Diogenes (6) Laertius  

Herbert Strainge Long and Robert Sharples

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Diogenes (6) Laertius, also called Laërtius Diogenes, author of an extant compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from *Thales to *Epicurus. Since he omits ... More

Diogenianus (1), Epicurean  

William David Ross

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
*Eusebius quotes many passages from his polemic against Chrysippus' doctrine of fate. His date is unknown, but he probably belongs to the 2nd cent. ce, when the polemic of the New *Academy ... More

Dionysius (8), of Heraclea (3) on Pontus, Greek Stoic philosopher, c. 328–248 BCE  

Julia Annas

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Philosophy
Dionysius of *Heraclea (3) on the Pontus (c. 328–248 bce), pupil of *Zeno (2) and others, including *Heraclides (1) of Pontus. As a Stoic (see Stoicism) he wrote philosophical works, and also poetry. ... More

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