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Vibius Trebonianus Gallus, Gaius, Roman emperor Trebonianus Gallus  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus,the emperor Trebonianus Gallus, ruled 251–3 ce. A successful senatorial governor of *Moesia, he was acclaimed by the army immediately after *Decius' death. ... More

Victorinus, Marcus Piavvonius  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Praetorian prefect (see praefectus praetorio) of the Gallic usurper, *Postumus, whom he succeeded in 269 AD after the ephemeral reign of Marius. Though he abandoned *Spain and lost eastern ... More

Villius (Annalis), Lucius  

T. Corey Brennan

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Lucius Villius(Annalis), tribune of the plebs in 180 bce (see tribuni plebis), passed the first law to stipulate minimum ages for tenure of each (curule) magistracy (42 for the consulship); ... More

Vindelici  

John Wilkes and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Vindelici, a people of mainly Celtic origin (see celts) but including Illyrian (see illyrii) and other elements, inhabited the Swabian–Bavarian plateau and reached from the southern slopes of the ... More

Vinicius, Marcus  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Marcus Vinicius (*suffect consul 19 bce), a *novus homo from *Cales in *Campania, is first mentioned as legate (see legati) of *Augustus in Gaul (25 bce). In *Illyricum (13 bce, perhaps as ... More

Vinius, Titus  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Titus Vinius, influential associate of *Galba and his colleague as consul in 69 ce, had been imprisoned while military tribune (see tribuni militum) in Germany in 39 on the charge of ... More

Vipsania Agrippina (1), daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and wife of Tiberius, d. 20 CE  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and granddaughter of T. *Pomponius Atticus. Married to *Tiberius, she bore him a son, Nero *Claudius Drusus, but he was forced by Augustus, against his will, to ... More

Vipsania Agrippina (2), 'Agrippina the Elder', daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and wife of Germanicus  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Vipsania Agrippina (2), ‘the Elder Agrippina’ (c.14 bce–33 ce), the daughter of M. *Vipsanius Agrippa and of *Iulia ((3), daughter of *Augustus). She married *Germanicus (probably in ce 5), to whom ... More

Vipsanius Agrippa, Marcus  

Geoffrey Walter Richardson, Theodore John Cadoux, and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the lifelong friend and supporter of *Augustus, was born in 64, 63, or even 62 bce of obscure but probably well-to-do family (he neglected his undistinguished family name). ... More

Vipstanus Messalla  

Howard Hayes Scullard and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Vipstanus Messalla, great-grandson of M. *Valerius Messalla Messallinus, military tribune in 69 ce (see tribuni militum), took temporary command of Legio VII Claudia (see legion) at the battle of ... More

Viriatus, c. 180–139 BCE  

Ernst Badian and Christoph F. Konrad

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Viriatus (c. 180–139 bce), a Lusitanian shepherd (see lusitania), escaped from the massacre of Ser. *Sulpicius Galba(1) (150), rallied his people, and became their war-leader (by 147). ... More

vis  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Latin word, means neutrally ‘force’ and pejoratively ‘violence’. It is the latter sense that is treated here. For Greece see under violence.(a) Political Violence. Apart from the major non-violent ... More

Vitellius, Aulus, Roman emperor, 15–69 CE  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Aulus Vitellius, (15–69 ce), Roman emperor in 69, son of Lucius *Vitellius, an influential figure under the Julio-Claudians, was friendly with *Gaius(1), *Claudius, and *Nero. Consul in 48, he became ... More

Vitellius, Lucius  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Lucius Vitellius (consul 34 ce, consul for the second time in 43, and for the third in 47), son of P. Vitellius (a Roman knight from *Luceria (not Nuceria: RE Suppl. 9. 1741), *procurator of ... More

Vocontii  

A. L. F. Rivet and John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Vocontii, a Celtic people of Gallia Narbonensis (see celts; gaul (transalpine)) who, from at least the 3rd cent. bce (Livy, 21. 31) occupied the western foothills of the Alps south of the ... More

Volsci  

Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Volsci, people of ancient Italy. The Volsci first become prominent in ancient historical narratives of the early 5th cent., when they overran southern *Latium and occupied the Monti Lepini, most of ... More

Votienus Montanus  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Orator from *Narbo. Although L. *Annaeus Seneca(1), Controv.9, pref., assigns him a long speech explaining why he never took part in *declamations, numerous extracts, chiefly from the same book, show ... More

war, art of, Roman  

Jonathan Coulston

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
The earliest Roman battle-order was probably the spear-armed and javelin-armed Italic form of the *hoplite*phalanx, a single, close-order infantry formation. In the 4th cent. bce this was replaced by ... More

wealth, Roman attitudes towards  

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the ... More

Zama, battle of  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Roman History and Historiography
Zama is the name given to the final battle of the Second *Punic War, though it was not actually fought near any of the places so called (see preceding entry). *Hannibal had perhaps 36,000 ... More

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