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mines and mining, Greek  

John Ellis Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Greeks obtained *gold and *silver and ‘utility’ metals, copper, *tin (for bronze), *iron and *lead by mining and by trade; *colonization extended their scope for both. Literary evidence for mining is ... More

mines and mining, Roman  

Jonathan Edmondson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Imperial expansion gave Rome control over a wide variety of mineral resources. The Iberian peninsula (see spain), *Gaul (Transalpine), *Britain, the Danubian provinces (*Dalmatia, *Noricum, and ... More

money  

Colin P. Elliott

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Money is any object that is used as a medium of exchange, but moneys often also function as stores of value, accounting units, and means for making payments. Through the use of physical ... More

monopolies  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Monopolies, in the sense of exclusive control of the supply of a product or service, were known in antiquity, but restricted in scope. In no case was the declared aim an increase in productivity ... More

munus  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Munus, a gift or service, given or rendered freely (a lover's gift, or the gifts of gods to men) or, more commonly, out of a sense of duty (burial of the dead, sacrifices, or funeral games). The ... More

Muziris papyrus  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The “Muziris” papyrus (PVindob. G40822) provides unique details about the trade between Roman Egypt and India. It was purchased in 1980 for the Austrian National Library, and first published in 1985, ... More

navicularii  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Navicularii were private shipowners. In the Principate navicularii who contracted to provide a certain minimum tonnage for the service of the annona, the public *food supply of ... More

negotiatores  

Jeremy Paterson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Negotiatores, the businessmen of the Roman world. In literary sources of the republican period, most notably *Cicero, negotiatores, or people who negotia gerunt (‘conduct business deals’), are found ... More

nummularius  

Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Nummularius, a banker, whether one who exchanged coins of different monetary systems or one who tested coins to see whether they were forgeries; and in the 3rd cent. ce a mint official, ... More

olive  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The olive is probably native to the Mediterranean region. It is long-lived and highly drought-resistant, though sensitive to frost, and thrives best at relatively low altitudes. Olives ... More

Ostia  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Ancient Geography
Ostia, city at the mouth of the *Tiber, colonia at least by the late 4th cent. bce, heavily involved with Rome's naval history, commerce, and communications, and one of the best-known Roman cities ... More

Panskoye I  

Vladimir F. Stolba

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th ... More

Pasion, d. 370/369 BCE  

Jeremy Trevett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Pasion was the wealthiest banker and manufacturer of his time in Athens (see banks). He began his career as a slave with a banking firm in the *Piraeus, was made a freedman and subsequently ... More

peasants  

Lin Foxhall

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Peasants are like postholes: it is much easier to see where they ought to have been in the classical world than where they actually were. By ‘peasants’ most scholars have meant, small-scale, ... More

pentakosiomedimnoi, 'five-hundred-bushel men'  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Pentakosiomedimnoi, ‘five-hundred-bushel men’, at *Athens, members of the highest of the four property classes devised by *Solon, comprising men whose land yielded at least 500 medimnoi of corn or ... More

Pentelicon  

Robin Osborne

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Ancient Geography
Mountain east of Athens, known in antiquity as Brilessus. From the 6th cent. bce onwards the high-quality *marble was exploited by quarrying on both western and northern slopes. All the ... More

Phormion (2), freedman of Athenian banker Pasion, 4th cent. BCE  

Jeremy Trevett

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Phormion was the slave and subsequently *freedman of the Athenian banker *Pasion (see banks), and himself worked in the bank. Shortly before Pasion's death he leased the bank from him, and later ... More

population, Greek  

Robert Sallares

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The demography of Greece is a very difficult subject to investigate because of the shortage of statistical data. The Greeks did not have the modern concept of ‘population’ as a breeding group. ... More

population, Roman  

Saskia Hin

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Roman population size and population trends have been debated for long by proponents of low and high counts; these have recently been joined by proponents of a middle count. Each is based ... More

portoria  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Portoria were in origin duties on goods entering or leaving harbours, the upkeep of which was a charge on public funds. Such levies were made in Italian harbours under the republic, though they were ... More

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