John Ellis Jones
Colin P. Elliott
Paul C. Millett
Dominic W. Rathbone
Dominic W. Rathbone
Navicularii were private shipowners. In the Principate navicularii who contracted to provide a certain minimum tonnage for the service of the annona, the public *food supply of Rome, were given special rewards by emperors: *Claudius offered benefits of status, and by the time of *Hadrian the great boon of exemption from the public liturgies imposed locally by cities had been added (see
Jeremy Paterson and Antony Spawforth
Nummularius, a banker, whether one who exchanged coins of different monetary systems or one who tested coins to see whether they were forgeries; and in the 3rd cent.
The olive is probably native to the Mediterranean region. It is long-lived and highly drought-resistant, though sensitive to frost, and thrives best at relatively low altitudes. Olives generally only crop every other year, and usually trees are regionally synchronized. Despite the attempts of farmers from antiquity to the present to break this habit, it has never successfully been circumvented.
Olives are easily propagated by cuttings, ovules (trunk growths, Gk. premna), or by grafting, a well-known technique in the classical world. Domesticated scions were frequently grafted onto wild stocks. Trees grown from cuttings planted in a nursery beds seem to have been more characteristic of Roman than Greek regimes. Greek farmers apparently preferred planting ovules, which have a greater success-rate under conditions of water-stress than cuttings. Olives do not grow true to type from seed. Many varieties were known and cultivated for both oil and table use in classical antiquity.
Vladimir F. Stolba
Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th century
Pasion was the wealthiest banker and manufacturer of his time in Athens (see
Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes
Mountain east of Athens, known in antiquity as Brilessus. From the 6th cent.
Roman population size and population trends have been debated for long by proponents of low and high counts; these have recently been joined by proponents of a middle count. Each is based on a different interpretation of the enigmatic Roman census figures. Different understandings of patterns of death and disease, of marriage, of childbearing, and of infanticide follow on from these interpretations. Recent studies have added new perspectives, drawing on archaeological finds, and have started to pay more attention to migration flows.