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Philoponus, John  

Richard Sorabji

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Philosophy
John Philoponus (c. 490ce to 570s), a Christian Neoplatonist (see neoplatonism) in *Alexandria (1), influenced subsequent science down to Galileo by replacing many of *Aristotle's theories with an ... More

Philostorgius, ecclesiastical historian, c. 368–c. 440? CE  

A. M. Nobbs

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Philostorgius, ecclesiastical historian, c. 368–c. 440? ce, born in Boryssus (*Cappadocia), into a clerical family who had been won over to neo-*Arianism (Eunomianism). By the age of 20, he was in ... More

Phoenix, Latin elegiac poem  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature
Phoenix (De Ave Phoenice), poem in 170 elegiac lines on the fabulous bird whose life, eternally renewed through death, was a potent symbol for both pagans and Christians. The ascription to ... More

Photius, c. 810–c. 893 CE  

Peter Barr Reid Forbes, Robert Browning, and Nigel Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
The best of the Byzantine scholars and patriarch of *Constantinople in ce 858–67 and 878–86. ‘At the pressing intreaty of the Caesar (Bardas), the celebrated Photius renounced the freedom of a ... More

Physiologus, 'the Natural Scientist'  

M. B. Trapp

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Science, Technology, and Medicine
Physiologus (‘the Natural Scientist’), an exposition of the marvellous properties of some 50 animals, plants, and stones, with a Christian interpretation of each (e.g. the pelican, which ... More

pilgrimage, Christian  

E. D. Hunt

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Despite the New Testament's disavowal of the localized cults of Judaism and the surrounding pagan world—the need was for holy lives rather than holy places—early Christians still clung to their ... More

Polycarp, c. 69–c. 155 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Bishop of *Smyrna and correspondent of Ignatius of Antioch. His martyrdom at the age of 86 is described in a letter from the Smyrnaean church to that at Philomelium, Phrygia. That the MSS preserve an ... More

Pompeius, African grammarian, late 5th–early 6th cent. CE  

R. A. Kaster

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Latin Literature

Pompeius (late 5th–early 6th cent. ce), African grammarian, commented on *Donatus (1)'s ars (GL 5. 95–312), perhaps also on *Virgil and *Terence (very uncertain).

Porcius Festus  

Tessa Rajak

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Roman History and Historiography
Porcius Festus, *procurator of *Judaea, ?60–62 ce, was, like his predecessor Felix, harassed by sicarii terrorists and by a pseudo-prophet. He supported *Iulius Agrippa (2) II against the ... More

possession, religious  

Corinne Ondine Pache

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
That a human being might become possessed by a supernatural power was a fairly common ancient belief. The effect might be a sudden change in behavior, the altered state of consciousness associated ... More

Precatio terrae, Precatio omnium herbarum  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Latin Literature
Two short anonymous prayers of uncertain date to Mother Earth and to all herbs; the second may show Christian influence. Attempts to read these texts as iambic senarii have resulted in much ... More

Priscillianists  

Todd Breyfogle

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
The Priscillianists were members of a Christian ascetic movement which flourished in Spain and Aquitaine during the last quarter of the 4th cent. ce. Its founder, Priscillian, was a ... More

Proba, Faltonia Betitia  

Sigrid Schottenius Cullhed

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Faltonia Betitia Proba (fl. late 4th century) was a Roman poet, writer of a Christian cento (Lat. for patchwork), which circulated in the Eastern and Western Empire toward the end of the ... More

Proclus Constantinopolitanus, c. 385–446 CE; bishop, 434–446 CE  

Maximos Constas

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
An early archbishop of Constantinople and a popular preacher in the rhetorical style of Gregory Nazianzus (d. 390), Proclus was the principal architect of the Byzantine cult of the Virgin Mary. ... More

Prosper Tiro, of Aquitaine, c. 390–c. 455 CE  

William Hugh Clifford Frend

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Prosper Tiro (c. 390–c. 455 ce) of Aquitaine became a monk and may have taken deacon's orders. At Marseille (*Massalia) he supported *Augustine's doctrine of Grace against more moderate ... More

Prudentius Clemens, Aurelius, 348–after 405 CE  

Cillian O'Hogan

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity, Latin Literature
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was a Christian Latin poet who wrote in a variety of genres and metres. Born in northern Spain, in 348ce, he had a career in public administration before ... More

Pulcheria, Roman Augusta, 414–453 CE  

Hugh Elton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Pulcheria was a Roman empress in the early to mid-5th century ce, one of the sisters of the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II (408–450). Pulcheria spent her entire life in Constantinople ... More

Rufinus (2), of Aquileia, Christian writer, translator, and monastic leader  

C. P. Bammel

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Rufinus (2) of *Aquileia, Christianwriter, translator, and monastic leader, born c.ce 345 at Concordia Sagittaria of good family, boyhood friend of *Jerome, whose education he shared, baptised at ... More

Saba, St  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
St. Saba, a Gothic martyr (see goths) killed on 12 April 372 during the Gothic persecution of Christians which followed the peace of 369. His remains were secured by Junius Soranus, dux Scythiae, and ... More

sacramentum (military)  

George Ronald Watson and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Roman History and Historiography
Sacramentum (military), the oath of allegiance, sworn on attestation by a Roman recruit; the most strictly observed of all Roman oaths according to *Dionysius (7) of Halicarnassus. Its content ... More

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