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Byblos  

John Boardman, Jean-François Salles, and J. F. Healey

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Byblos (mod. Jubayl, Lebanon), a major port of Phoenicia, deriving much of its prosperity from the export of timber (see the Egyptian story of Wen-Amon, 11th cent. bce, though doubt is cast on this ... More

Byzantium  

Alexander John Graham and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Late Antiquity, Near East
Byzantium, a famous city on the European side of the south end of the *Bosporus (1), between the Golden Horn and the *Propontis. The Greek city occupied only the eastern tip of the promontory, in the ... More

Cairo geniza  

Lawrence H. Schiffman

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Jewish Studies, Late Antiquity, Near East
The Cairo geniza was a storeroom for no longer usable holy books in the synagogue of Fustat, Old Cairo, where for centuries, old Jewish manuscripts, mostly in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Judeo- ... More

Cambyses  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cambyses (OP Kābujiya), eldest son of *Cyrus (1); acceded on the death of his father (530 bce). He completed his father's grand plan by conquering Egypt, where he was successful in ... More

camels  

John Kinloch Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Camels, long domesticated in Arabia and neighbouring lands, were unfamiliar in Anatolia in 546 bce when *Cyrus (1)'s baggage-camels terrified the Lydian horses (Hdt. 1. 80). These may have been ... More

Cappadocia  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Near East
Cappadocia, at one time designated the whole region between Lake Tatta and the *Euphrates, and from the *Euxine Sea to *Cilicia; but the northern part became ‘Cappadocian Pontus’ or simply ... More

Caria  

John Manuel Cook, Anna Morpurgo Davies, and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Mountainous region inhabited by Carians in SW Asia Minor south of the *Maeander, with Greek cities (*Cnidus and *Halicarnassus) occupying the salient peninsulas and mixed communities on the shores of ... More

Carrhae  

Eric William Gray, Susan Mary Sherwin-White, and R. J. van der Spek

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Carrhae (Akkadian Harran, Biblical Haran, mod. Harran, SE Turkey), a city of north *Mesopotamia about 40 km. (25 mi.) south-west of *Edessa, an ancient cult centre of the moon-god Sin. The temple of ... More

Carthage, history  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East, Roman History and Historiography
Carthage (Qrtḥdšt ( = ‘New Town’); Καρχήδων; Carthago), a *Phoenician colony and later a major Roman city on the coast of NE Tunisia.According to tradition (Timaeus, FGrH 566 fr. 60) Carthage was ... More

Carthage, topography  

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington, and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East, Roman Material Culture
Carthage was founded on part of a large peninsula which stretched eastwards from lagoons into the gulf of Tunis; the isthmus linking it to the mainland further west is c. 5 km. (3 mi.) wide at its ... More

Cattigara  

Ian C. Glover

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Port of the Sinae (see seres) near the mouth of the river Cottaris. Marinus of Tyre mentions a sailor Alexander who, in the 1st cent. ce, sailed to Cattigara on a gulf inhabited by ... More

Chaeremon (2), of Alexandria (1), Greek author, 1st cent. CE  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Chaeremon of *Alexandria (1), where he held a priesthood: Greek writer on Egypt. He taught the young *Nero. His writings treated Egyptian history, religion, customs, astrology, and ... More

Chalybes  

Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton and David C. Braund

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
A people of the SE coast of the Black (*Euxine) Sea, renowned in legend as the first workers of *iron and as the inventors of steel or carburized iron. Archaeology east of *Trapezus offers some ... More

Chosroes II, Parvēz, Sasanian king, 590–628 CE  

Henning Börm

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Late Antiquity, Near East
Chosroes II was one of the most important Sasanian rulers of Late Antiquity. After having prevailed with the help of Emperor Maurice in a civil war against the usurper Bahrām Čōbin, in 591 ... More

Christodorus  

J. H. D. Scourfield

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Late Antiquity, Near East
(5th–6th cents. ce), poet from *Coptus in Egypt. All that survives complete is an *ekphrasis on the statues decorating the baths of Zeuxippus in *Constantinople, which in diction and ... More

Cineas (1), founder of Ai Khanoum (Afghanistan)  

Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cineas (1), (?) Thessalian *founder of *Ai Khanoum (in modern Afghanistan) to whom, as *archēgetēs, *hero-cult was paid, on the evidence of an interesting verse inscription put up at the ... More

Clazomenae  

George Ewart Bean and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Clazomenae (mod. Klazumen), one of the twelve cities of the *Panionium, situated on the south shore of the gulf of Smyrna on a small island joined to the mainland by a causeway. The original ... More

Cleopatra I, c. 215–176 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Daughter of *Antiochus (3) III and *Laodice (3) and wife (from 193) of *Ptolemy (1) V Epiphanes. On Epiphanes’ death in 180 bce she acted as regent for her elder son *Ptolemy (1) VI, and on ... More

Cleopatra II, c. 185–116 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cleopatra II (c. 185–116 BCE), daughter of *Cleopatra I and *Ptolemy (1) V and both sister and wife of first *Ptolemy (1) VI Philometor (from 175) and then (from 145) his successor (and brother) ... More

Cleopatra III  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cleopatra III, daughter of *Ptolemy (1) VI and *Cleopatra II, was seduced and married by *Ptolemy (1) VIII Euergetes II in 140/139 bce. She spent much of her life in conflict with her mother, whom ... More

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