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poverty  

Neville Morley

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Discussions of poverty in past societies almost always begin with the question of definition, and the problem of cross-cultural comparison. By most modern standards—in terms of education or health, ... More

prices  

Paul Erdkamp

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
While our sources mention numerous prices of a wide range of commodities, the question remains to what extent these prices offer insight into the ancient economy. Despite the wealth of ... More

proletarii  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Proletarii, as opposed to assidui, were the citizens of Rome too poor to contribute anything to the state except their children (proles). They seem to have been equated with the capite censi as ... More

proscription  

Theodore John Cadoux and Robin Seager

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Proscription, the publication of a notice, especially (1) a notice of a sale; (2) a list of Roman citizens who were declared outlaws and whose goods were confiscated. This procedure was used by ... More

publicani  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Since the Roman republic had only a rudimentary ‘civil service’ (see *apparitores) and primitive budgeting methods, the collection of public revenue, except for the *tributum, was sold as a public ... More

purple  

Ludwig Alfred Moritz

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Material Culture
Of the two main kinds of purple-yielding shellfish described by *Pliny (1) (HN 9. 125–41), purpura and pelagia (Greek πορφύρα) correspond to the Linnaean murex, murex and bucinum (κῆρυξ) to the ... More

quaestor  

Ernst Badian and Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Quaestores parricidii (see parricidium) are said to have been appointed by the kings. Under the republic there were two, who prosecuted some capital cases before the people. They fade from our record ... More

reciprocity, Greek  

G. Herman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Philosophy
The idea that giving goods or rendering services imposed upon the recipient a moral obligation to respond pervaded Greek thought from its earliest documented history. Linguistically, the idea is most ... More

repetundae  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Repetundae (pecuniae), (money) to be recovered. The quaestio de repetundis (see quaestiones) was a court established to secure compensation for the illegal acquisition of money or property by Romans ... More

salarium  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Roman Law
Salarium is a term used in the imperial period to denote regular payments to officials. *Augustus instituted the making of regular payments to senatorial and equestrian officials in the provinces ... More

salted fish products  

Robert I. Curtis

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
The Mediterranean Sea dominated Greco-Roman society in many ways, but none more importantly than as a source of food. Early Punic settlers in the West and later Greeks and Romans, motivated ... More

senate, regal and republican period  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the time of the *Gracchi (c.133–121 bce) the senate was a body of around 300 wealthy men of aristocratic birth, most of them ex-magistrates. Although the sources tend to assume that this state of ... More

shops and shopping  

Claire Holleran

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Almost all inhabitants of the ancient world were dependent to varying degrees on retailers to supply them with at least some food items, raw materials, or manufactured goods, and this was ... More

silk  

J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Silk (τὸ σηρικόν, serica vestis), a fine light-reflecting filament extruded by silkworms, especially the domesticated mulberry silkworm of China (Bombyx mori), to build cocoons. The earliest extant ... More

silver  

Frederick Norman Pryce, John Boardman, and Michael Vickers

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
While *gold could be easily obtained from alluvial deposits by washing, silver had to be extracted by regular mining processes. The *Phoenicians are said to have been the first to bring silver into ... More

sitophylakes  

D. M. MacDowell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Athenian officials appointed annually by lot to supervise the sale of grain, barley-meal, and bread, and prevent overcharging. There were originally five for the town of Athens and five for ... More

slavery, Greek  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
From Homer's claim that a man loses half his selfhood when ‘the day of slavery’ comes upon him (Il. 6. 463) to Aristotle's doctrine of ‘natural slavery’ (Pol. bk. 1, 1253b15–55b40), Greek life and ... More

slavery, Roman  

Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
Slavery in the strict sense of chattel-slavery, whereby the slave‐owner enjoyed complete mastery (dominium) over the slave's physical being (Dig. 1. 5. 4. 1), the power of life and death included ... More

stipendium  

Brian Campbell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy
S tipendium denoted a cash payment and later a permanent tax; it also meant the regular cash payment received by soldiers at the end of the campaigning season, and consequently came to mean a period ... More

symmoria  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Economy, Greek Law
Symmoria (‘partnership’), in Athens a group of men liable for payment of the tax called *eisphora or for the *liturgy of the *trierarchy. In 378/7 bce all payers of eisphora were organized in ... More

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