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Salvianus, of Marseilles, b. c. 400 CE  

John F. Matthews and David Lambert

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
He had relatives at Cologne and c.421 witnessed the Frankish attack (see *Franks) upon Trier (*Augusta Treverorum). In 425, with his wife Palladia's consent, he joined Honoratus' monastery at Lérins. ... More

Sedulius, fl. 435 CE  

Samuel James Beeching Barnish

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
His Paschale Carmen, five books of hexameters (with prose paraphrase) on Christ's life and miracles, is mainly a Christologically didactic adaptation of the Gospels. Thick with Virgilian ... More

Sextus (2), originator of a collection of maxims  

William David Ross and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Sextus (2), originator of a collection of maxims, mentioned by *Origen (1) and translated into Latin by *Rufinus (2) under the title Anulus. The Syriac translation bears the title Dicta ... More

Smyrna  

William Moir Calder, John Manuel Cook, Antony Spawforth, and Charlotte Roueché

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Near East
Smyrna (mod. Izmir), a city on the west coast of Asia Minor at the head of the Hermaic Gulf, the natural outlet of the trade of the *Hermus valley and within easy reach of the *Maeander valley. Old ... More

Socrates Scholasticus, lawyer  

Jill Harries

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Socrates Scholasticus, lawyer in *Constantinople, continued the Historia Ecclesiastica of *Eusebius from 305 ce to 439, basing his account on documentary and first-hand testimony, as Eusebius had ... More

Sophronius, 'the Sophist'  

John F. Matthews

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Patriarch of Jerusalem (from c. 560–638, 634ce) at the time of the Arab conquest of 637. He wrote a theological manifesto against the doctrine that although Christ had two natures he had ... More

Sozomen, church historian  

Alberto J. Quiroga Puertas

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Salamanes Hermeias Sozomenus, also known as Sozomen, was a lawyer and church historian. The scarce biographical information that we have about him derives from ex silentio arguments and from the ... More

Stephanus of Byzantium  

Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Late Antiquity
Greek grammarian, probably a contemporary of *Justinian, and a publicly appointed teacher in Constantinople. Nothing is known in detail of his life except that he was a Christian. He is the author of ... More

Sulpicius Quirinius, Publius  

Ronald Syme and Barbara Levick

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Roman History and Historiography
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, consul 12 bce, a *novus homo from *Lanuvium (on his career cf. Tac.Ann. 3. 48). Quirinius defeated the Marmaridae (Florus 2. 31), perhaps as proconsul of *Crete and ... More

Synesius, of Cyrene, Christian Neoplatonist, c. 370–413 CE  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Christian Neoplatonist (See neoplatonism) and bishop of Ptolemais (see pentapolis) 410–13. A pupil of *Hypatia at Alexandria, he tended towards oratory and poetry. Nine hymns, 156 letters, and a ... More

Tarsus  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Stephen Mitchell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Christianity
Tarsus, a native Cilician (see cilicia) town with a long prehistoric past, which later claimed *Triptolemus, *Perseus(1), and above all *Heracles as its founder. It was capital of the Cilician kings ... More

Tertullian, c. 160–c. 240 CE  

Eric Rebillard

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus) was born in a pagan family and grew up in Carthage. Nothing is known about his conversion, but it happened in his youth or at least before he got ... More

Tetricus, Gaius Pius Esuvius, Roman emperor  

John Frederick Drinkwater

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus became emperor in Gaul in 271 ce. In the literary tradition he appears weaker than *Postumus and *Victorinus, finally betraying his own army to *Aurelian at ... More

Thamugadi  

William Nassau Weech and R. J. A. Wilson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Christianity
Thamugadi (modern Timgad, Algeria), a settlement in *Numidia 32 km. (20 mi.) east of *Lambaesis, is one of the few almost totally excavated towns in the Roman empire. Founded in 100ce by *Trajan as ... More

Theodoret, c. 393–466 CE  

Henry Chadwick and M. J. Edwards

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
After a good education he became a monk and from 423 bishop of Cyrrhus in Syria. From 428 he supported his friend Nestorius in the Christological controversy against *Cyril of Alexandria, ... More

Theophilus (2), bishop of Antioch (1)  

Wolfram Kinzig

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Theophilus (2) bishop of *Antioch (1), author of the three books To Autolycus (written shortly after 180 ce), which include a defence of basic Christian doctrines (see apologists, ... More

Thessalonica  

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Christianity
Thessalonica, a city of *Macedonia, founded by *Cassander, who synoecized the small towns at the head of the Thermaic Gulf (see synoecism); perhaps on the site of Therme (Strabo 7 fr. 24). It was ... More

theurgy  

Anne Sheppard

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Theurgy was a form of pagan religious *magic associated with the *Chaldaean Oracles and taken up by the later Neoplatonists. It covered a range of magical practices, from rain-making and cures to ... More

Thomas Magister, of Thessalonica  

John Francis Lockwood and Robert Browning

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Thomas Magister was the secretary of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II (1282–1328 ce), but withdrew to a monastery, where he devoted himself to scholarship. ... More

Ulfila  

Peter Heather

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity
Ulfila, “little wolf,” Gothic bishop (see goths), fl. c. 340–382 ce, was born in Gothia of the stock of Roman prisoners from Cappadocia. Famous for translating the Gothic Bible, of which ... More

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