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Cleopatra VII, 69–30 BCE  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East, Roman History and Historiography
Cleopatra VII (69–30 bce), the final and best known of the Ptolemies, was daughter of *Ptolemy (1) XII (Auletes). On the latter's death in 51 she became queen, alone at first and subsequently with ... More

Cnidus  

John Manuel Cook and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cnidus, a *Dorian city, founded perhaps c.900 bce, and claiming descent from *Sparta, was situated on a long peninsula (Reşadiye), in the gulf of *Cos (SW Asia Minor), and was a member of the Dorian ... More

colonization, Hellenistic  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
*Plutarch, in the eulogy of his hero *Alexander (3) the Great (De Alex. fort.), made the foundation of cities the linchpin of the achievement of Alexander, who wished to spread Greek civilization ... More

Commagene  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, J. David Hawkins, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Country on the west bank of the upper Euphrates, first known as the neo-Hittite kingdom of Kummuh with a capital of the same name at *Samosata. Its history can be partially reconstructed from ... More

Commagenian, Greco-Iranian religious syncretism  

Bruno Jacobs

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
The religious syncretism associated with the Commagenian dynasty, combining Greek and Iranian elements, is a phenomenon linked exclusively to king Antiochus I (c. 69–36bce). Whereas its Greek ... More

Coptus  

Walter Eric Harold Cockle

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Near East
Coptus (mod. Qift), a nome-capital of Upper *Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The temple of Min, repaired by Ptolemy II (see ptolemy(1)), remained important until the Christian period. ... More

Cos  

William Allison Laidlaw and Susan Mary Sherwin-White

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
A fertile island of the Sporades, situated in the SE Aegean, on the north–south trading route along the coast of Turkey and onwards to Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt. After Mycenaean occupation, the island ... More

costus  

Daniel Potts

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
The root of Saussurea lappa, an Indian plant found mainly in Kashmir; from Skt. kúṣṭhaḥ, cf. Gk. κόστος (Theophr. Hist. pl. 19. 7. 3; Peripl. M. Rubr. 39, 49), Old South Arabian qsṭ. Called ... More

cotton  

Stephanie Dalley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cotton is first attested from excavations in the Indus valley for the early second millennium bce; cotton plants were imported into *Assyria by Sennacheribc.700 bce, who attempted to grow ... More

Croesus, last king of Lydia, c. 560–546 BCE  

Percy Neville Ure and Simon Hornblower

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Croesus, last king of *Lydia (c. 560–546 bce), son of *Alyattes. He secured the throne after a struggle with a half-Greek half-brother, and completed the subjugation of the Greek cities on ... More

crucifixion  

George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Christianity, Near East, Roman Law, Roman Material Culture
Crucifixion seems to have been a form of punishment borrowed by the Romans from elsewhere, probably *Carthage. As a Roman penalty it is first certainly attested in the *Punic Wars. It was normally ... More

Ctesias  

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Greek History and Historiography, Near East
Ctesias of Cnidus was a doctor at the court of Artaxerxes II and the author of a history of Persia and other works. He seems to have studied, and possibly practised, medicine at Cnidus. The exact ... More

Ctesiphon  

Malcolm Andrew Richard Colledge and Josef Wiesehöfer

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Ctesiphon, on the river Tigris, c. 96 km. (60 mi.) above *Babylon, part of the city agglomeration al-Mada’in (together with Seleuceia, Veh Ardashir). Originally, it was a village garrisoned by ... More

Cunaxa  

John F. Lazenby

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
A small town on the *Euphrates near Bagdhad, where *Cyrus (2), younger son of *Darius II of Persia, was defeated and killed by his elder brother, *Artaxerxes (3) II, in 401 bce. The battle is chiefly ... More

cuneiform  

Benjamin Fortson

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Linguistics, Near East
Cuneiform denotes any of at least three writing systems of ancient Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas. It is characterized in its classical form by signs consisting of one or more ... More

Cybele  

Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East, Roman Myth and Religion
Cybele (Κυβέλη; Lydian form Κυβήβη, Hdt. 5. 102), the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, associated in myth, and later at least in cult, with her youthful lover *Attis. *Pessinus in Phrygia ... More

Cyprus  

Hector Catling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Ancient Geography, Near East
Cyprus, third largest Mediterranean island (9,282 sq. km.: 3,584 sq. mi.) was of strategic and economic importance to the Mediterranean and near eastern powers, and significant both to ... More

Cyrus (1), 'the Great', Persian king, d. 530 BCE  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cyrus the Great (OP Kuruš), son of *Cambyses I, who became c.557 bce king of the small kingdom of Anshan in *Persia. Beginning in 550 he fought extensive campaigns in which he conquered, ... More

Cyrus (2), 'the Younger', brother of Artaxerxes (2) II, d. 401 BCE  

Pierre Briant

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Cyrus the Younger, second son of *Darius II and Parysatis. In 408 bce he was given an overarching command in Asia Minor to enable him to mount an effective fight against Athenian positions. When his ... More

Damascus  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Amélie Kuhrt, and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Near East
Ancient oasis-city, almost certainly the centre of the Achaemenid province ‘Beyond-the-River’ (note its role in 333 bce: Q. *Curtius Rufus 3. 8. 12, 13. 1), and a capital of the later *Seleucids, ... More

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