Dorothy J. Thompson
John Manuel Cook and Susan Mary Sherwin-White
Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, J. David Hawkins, and Antony Spawforth
Walter Eric Harold Cockle
Coptus (mod. Qift), a nome-capital of Upper *Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The temple of Min, repaired by Ptolemy II (see
William Allison Laidlaw and Susan Mary Sherwin-White
The root of Saussurea lappa, an Indian plant found mainly in Kashmir; from Skt. kúṣṭhaḥ, cf. Gk. κόστος (Theophr. Hist. pl. 19. 7. 3; Peripl. M. Rubr. 39, 49), Old South Arabian qsṭ. Called simply radix, ‘the root’, by the Romans (Plin. HN 12. 25. 41), it was used as a spice, a perfume, and an ingredient in various ointments.
Cotton is first attested from excavations in the Indus valley for the early second millennium
Percy Neville Ure and Simon Hornblower
Croesus, last king of *Lydia (c. 560–546
George Ronald Watson and Andrew Lintott
Malcolm Andrew Richard Colledge and Josef Wiesehöfer
John F. Lazenby
Cuneiform denotes any of at least three writing systems of ancient Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas. It is characterized in its classical form by signs consisting of one or more wedge-shaped strokes (cf. Latin cuneus, “wedge”). The first such script to emerge, and the one most widely used, was Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform, which developed in what is now southern Iraq in the late 4th millennium
Francis Redding Walton and John Scheid
Cybele (Κυβέλη; Lydian form Κυβήβη, Hdt. 5. 102), the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, associated in myth, and later at least in cult, with her youthful lover *Attis. *Pessinus in Phrygia was her chief sanctuary, and the cult appears at an early date in *Lydia. The queen or mistress of her people, Cybele was responsible for their well-being in all respects; primarily she is a goddess of fertility, but also cures (and sends) disease, gives oracles, and, as her mural crown indicates, protects her people in war. The goddess of mountains (so Μήτηρ ὀρεία; Meter Dindymene), she is also mistress of wild nature, symbolized by her attendant lions. Ecstatic states inducing prophetic rapture and insensibility to pain were characteristic of her worship (cf. especially Catull. 63).
By the 5th cent.
Cyprus, third largest Mediterranean island (9,282 sq. km.: 3,584 sq. mi.) was of strategic and economic importance to the Mediterranean and near eastern powers, and significant both to their relations with western Asia and with one another. It is vulnerable to the power politics of its neighbours, by one or other of whom it has often been occupied or governed, and whose mutual conflicts have sometimes been fought out on its soil or its seas. Though mountainous (the highest points on its Troödos and Kyrenia ranges are 1,951 and 1,023 m. (6,403 and 3,357 ft.) respectively), its central plain (Mesaoria) is fertile, while its extensive piedmont and river-valley systems are suited to crop and animal husbandry. The island suffers intermittently from serious seismic disturbance. Rainfall is uncertain, drought endemic, and fertility dramatically responsive to irrigation capacity. Copper ore, chiefly located in the Troödos foothills at the junction of igneous and sedimentary deposits, has been exploited since prehistory. Timber resources played a major role in the region's naval history.