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textile production  

Helen King and J. P. Wild

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Spinning and weaving held considerable symbolic and economic importance for women. In the *Gortyn Law Code (3. 17) a woman who was widowed or divorced could keep half of what she had woven ... More

theōrika  

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Theōrika, grants paid by the state to the citizens of Athens to enable them to attend the theatre at the major festivals. Attributions of these grants to *Pericles(1) (who introduced payment for ... More

thētes  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Thētes, hired labourers, the lowest class of free men in a Greek state. At Athens, after *Solon, the lowest of the four property classes, said (perhaps by false analogy with *pentakosiomedimnoi) to ... More

Thoricus  

John Ellis Jones

Thoricus, coastal *deme of SE *Attica, now a bare twin-peaked hill (Velatouri) north of modern Laurion. In legend, one of King *Cecrops' twelve Attic townships, home of the hunter king *Cephalus, and ... More

timber  

Eugene N. Borza

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Was a valuable economic product in Greece and Rome. Many Mediterranean lands were forested in ancient times, but these timber stands were drastically reduced by human exploitation and by the grazing ... More

tin  

Oliver Davies and David William John Gill

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Combined with copper is used to make the alloy of *bronze. Its addition to copper reduces the melting-point of the alloy, and also gives a product stronger than copper. A 4th-cent. bce inscription ... More

trade, Greek  

Paul Cartledge

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Exchange in some form has probably existed since the emergence of the first properly human social groups. Trade, whether local, regional, interregional or international, is a much later development. ... More

trade, Roman  

Jeremy Paterson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The central issue for historians has long been, and remains, how to characterize properly the scale and importance of trade and commerce in the overall economy of the Roman empire. Some seek to ... More

traders  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Traders in the ancient Mediterranean relied heavily on sea transport, reflecting terrain and the location of communities. *Plato(1) describes the Greeks as huddled around the sea ‘like ants and frogs ... More

travel  

Nicholas Purcell

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Levels of personal mobility varied greatly in the ancient Mediterranean. Certain categories of individual were regarded as mobile throughout: the emporos (*trader) was a recognizable figure already ... More

tribuni aerarii  

Ernst Badian

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribuni aerarii, originally treasury officials concerned with the collection of *tributum and its disbursement as military *stipendium. The office disappeared, but the title may have been ... More

tribute lists, Athenian  

Malcolm F. McGregor and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tribute lists (Athenian), records of the aparchai (first-fruits; pl. of *aparchē) of one-sixtieth given as an offering to *Athena from the tribute paid by the members of the *Delian League after the ... More

tributum  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tributum was a direct tax paid by individuals to the Roman state. Until 167 bce citizens of Rome were liable to pay a tributum which was in principle an extraordinary (in contrast to the regular ... More

trittyes, 'thirds'  

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Trittyes (‘thirds’), divisions both of the four old and of the ten new tribes at Athens. Little is known of the old trittyes; an ancient guess that they were identical with the *phratries ... More

vectigal  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Vectigal meant primarily revenue derived from public land, mines, saltworks, etc., and in general, rents derived from state property. Such sources provided the basic revenues of the early republic, ... More

via Salaria  

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Via Salaria, an old-established route which facilitated the salt trade from the *Tiber mouth. It ran north-east from Rome to *Reate in the Sabine country. Later extensions, ... More

villa  

David J. Mattingly

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Villa was the Latin word for a rural dwelling associated with an estate, and ranging in character from functional farms to the luxurious country seats of the élite (Varro, Rust. 1. 11. 1–12. 4; 3. 2. ... More

wages  

Paul C. Millett

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
Wages, payment in cash or kind in return for labour services, are attested as early as the *thētes ... More

water  

Johan Harm Croon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Water, in the mostly arid Mediterranean climate, by its local availability shaped patterns of settlement and, as erratic rainfall, determined harvest-fluctuations and food-shortages (see famine; food ... More

wealth, attitudes to  

John Davies

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Classical societies developed a range of responses to the universal ambition of individuals to amass property and possessions. One extreme response, characteristic of societies where the wealthy had ... More

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