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adaeratio  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Michael Crawford

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Adaeratio, the procedure whereby dues to the Roman state in kind were commuted to cash payments. The related word adaerare first appears in ce 383 (Cod. Theod. 7. 18. 8) and the practice is ... More

aerarii  

Andrew Dominic Edwards Lewis

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarii, payers, were a class of Roman citizens who had incurred the *censors' condemnation for some moral or other misbehaviour. They were required to pay the poll-tax (*tributum) at a ... More

aerarium  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Aerarium, derived from aes, denotes ‘treasury’. The main aerarium of Rome was the aerarium Saturni, so called from the temple below the Capitol, in which it was placed. Here were kept state ... More

alimenta  

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
The purpose of the alimentary foundations in the Roman empire was to give an allowance for feeding children, and this was achieved by the investment of capital in mortgage on land, the ... More

collatio lustralis  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Antony Spawforth

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Collatio lustralis (chrysargyron), a tax in gold and silver levied every five years (later four) on traders in the widest sense. It was instituted by *Constantine, and abolished in the east by ... More

commentarii  

Christopher Pelling

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Commentarii ‘memoranda’, were often private or businesslike, e.g. accounts, notebooks for speeches, legal notes, or teaching materials. Their public use (excluding the false ‘commentarii of the ... More

contubernium  

M. I. Finley and Keith Bradley

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Contubernium meant a ‘dwelling together’, as of soldiers or animals, but referred especially to a quasi-marital union between slave and slave or slave and free. Since a slave ... More

fiscus  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Fiscus originally meant ‘basket’ or ‘money-bag’ and thence came to denote the private funds of an individual or, in an administrative context, to mean the public funds held by a provincial governor. ... More

indictio  

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Indictio under the Principate meant the compulsory purchase of food, clothing, and other goods for the army and the court. Owing to the inflation of the mid-3rd cent. ce the ... More

institores  

Jean-Jacques Aubert

Online publication date:
May 2016
Because of the traditional reluctance of the Roman elite to engage personally in profit-oriented economic activities other than agriculture (Cic., Off. 1.151), entrepreneurs of all kinds ... More

maritime loans  

Dominic W. Rathbone

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, centred as they were on the Mediterranean, maritime transport was far more practical than land transport for long- and even medium-distance trade. Most ships ... More

proletarii  

Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Proletarii, as opposed to assidui, were the citizens of Rome too poor to contribute anything to the state except their children (proles). They seem to have been equated with the capite censi as ... More

quaestor  

Ernst Badian and Tony Honoré

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Quaestores parricidii (see parricidium) are said to have been appointed by the kings. Under the republic there were two, who prosecuted some capital cases before the people. They fade from our record ... More

repetundae  

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Repetundae (pecuniae), (money) to be recovered. The quaestio de repetundis (see quaestiones) was a court established to secure compensation for the illegal acquisition of money or property by Romans ... More

salarium  

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Salarium is a term used in the imperial period to denote regular payments to officials. *Augustus instituted the making of regular payments to senatorial and equestrian officials in the provinces ... More

senate, regal and republican period  

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
In the time of the *Gracchi (c.133–121 bce) the senate was a body of around 300 wealthy men of aristocratic birth, most of them ex-magistrates. Although the sources tend to assume that this state of ... More

tributum  

Graham Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Tributum was a direct tax paid by individuals to the Roman state. Until 167 bce citizens of Rome were liable to pay a tributum which was in principle an extraordinary (in contrast to the regular ... More

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