P. J. Rhodes
Timothy Thomas Bennett Ryder
Common Peace (κοινὴ εἰρήνη), the phrase used by *Diodorus (3) Siculus, following *Ephorus, and by some contemporaries (though not by *Demosthenes (2), *Isocrates, or *Xenophon (1)) to describe a series of peace-treaties in Greece in the 4th cent.
M. H. Hansen
Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth
George Law Cawkwell
P. J. Rhodes
D. M. MacDowell
Hyperides (Ὑπερείδης), son of Glaucippus of the deme Collytus, was one of the ten canonical Attic orators and was esteemed by ancient critics as a versatile speechwriter; as a politician, he was a prominent opponent of Macedon in the period before and after the battle of Chaeronea.
From the earliest stages, the Greeks understood the distinction between legislation and day-to-day administration. They gave laws a special status and often created specific, separate procedures to enact them. In the Archaic period, specially appointed lawgivers were normally in charge of giving laws to the polis; these laws were intended to be immutable, and their stability secured through entrenchment clauses. Making laws was not considered to be among the normal tasks of the government of the polis, and there were no standard procedures to change the laws once these had been given. Assemblies in Greek city-states often enacted rules that had the force of law, but the legislative changes were not institutionally acknowledged, and the laws enacted by the lawgivers could not be changed. This gave rise to significant problems of legitimacy, and it introduced inconsistencies in the legal system of the polis, a problem that we can observe in 5th-century
S. D. Lambert
Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux, and P. J. Rhodes
R. M. Errington
Stratocles, son of Euthydemus, Athenian from the *deme of Diomeia (c. 355 to after 292
Henry Dickinson Westlake and Antony Spawforth
Tetrarchy was first used to denote one of the four political divisions of *Thessaly (‘tetrad’ being a purely geographical term). The term found its way to the Hellenistic east and was applied to the four divisions into which each of the three Celtic tribes of *Galatia was subdivided (Strabo 12. 5. 1, 567 C). In Roman times many Hellenized *client kings in Syria and Palestine were styled ‘tetrarch’, but the number of tetrarchies in any political organization ceased to be necessarily four, denoting merely the realm of a subordinate dynast. Modern scholars conventionally describe as a ‘tetrarchy’ the system of collegiate government (two senior Augusti, two junior Caesars) instituted by *Diocletian (