1-8 of 8 Results  for:

  • Greek History and Historiography x
Clear all

Article

What makes Alexander Great? His story has captured the imagination of authors, artists, philosophers, and politicians across more than two millennia. He has provided a point of convergence for religious and spiritual thinkers, he has been co-opted as a champion for gender and sexual openness, he represents a paradigm for would-be charismatic dictators (and their opponents), he gives us scientific imperialism and justification for conquistadorial dreaming, and he exemplifies the risks of cultural appropriation. To understand why Alexander resonates so widely across so many different fields of study, interest groups, and media, is an exercise in reception. This Alexander who has captured the imagination is triumphantly equivocal and it is in the plurality of traditions through which this complexity is expressed that his enduring “greatness” lies. The imaginary quality of Alexander is unsurprising because more profoundly than for any comparable individual from classical antiquity, his history is a product of reception from the start: every encounter with Alexander the Great is part of a conversation that depends substantially on accounts and narrative evidence from long after his death, and at the least at one remove from the historians who first and contemporaneously chronicled his life and achievements.

Article

R. M. Errington

Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through active self-defence policies, successfully fighting against some of the *Galatians before c.230 (to whom he had first refused customary payments) and against *Antiochus (8) Hierax before 227, a success which temporarily brought all Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus into his sphere of influence. Most of this he lost again to *Seleucus (3) III and *Achaeus (3) from 223–212, though an agreement with *Antiochus (3) III against Achaeus (216) seems to have recognized Attalus' rights to Mysia and Aeolis, where Pergamene rule was re-established or consolidated. Friendly contacts with cities in Ionia and Hellespontine Phrygia were established, though hostility to the Bithynian kingdom was permanent. In Pergamum itself victories were celebrated by Attalus' taking the title ‘*Soter’ (‘Saviour’) and with monuments of spectacular expense and artistic quality (e.

Article

R. M. Errington

Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against *Antiochus (3) III, the *Galatians, *Prusias (1) I, and Pharnaces I, and as diplomat, especially in Rome, where after 167 some senators favoured him against Eumenes. As king—he bore the title already in Eumenes' lifetime—he married Eumenes' widow Stratonice and adopted her son Attalus. He recognized Roman paramountcy and acted accordingly: he restored *Ariarathes V to Cappadocia, supported *Alexander (10) Balas against *Demetrius (10) I in Syria (153–150), *Nicomedes II of Bithynia against *Prusias (2) II (149), whom with Roman help he had recently defeated, and sent troops against *Andriscus (148) and to *Corinth (146). He founded *Philadelphia (2) in Lydia and *Attaleia (Antalya) in Pamphylia, continued Eumenes' building programme at Pergamum and the tradition of magnificent gifts to Greek cities and shrines (e.

Article

Ctesias  

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones

Ctesias of Cnidus was a doctor at the court of Artaxerxes II and the author of a history of Persia and other works. He seems to have studied, and possibly practised, medicine at Cnidus. The exact time and reason for Ctesias’ arrival in Persia (maybe as a prisoner of war) is unknown. He is attested at the battle of Cunaxa in 401bce, when the armies of two royal brothers, King Artaxerxes II and Prince Cyrus, clashed over the right to the throne. There is every possibility that Ctesias was Artaxerxes’ physician before the revolt of Cyrus, and certainly after the battle Ctesias received numerous honours from the king (T3, 6b). He was resident in Persia for seventeen years (c. 413–397bce) as the king’s physician (T5). It appears that he also cared for Artaxerxes’ wife, Stateira, and his revered mother, Parysatis (T11d). In 399–397bce he left the Persian heartland for Cyprus and served as a go-between for Artaxerxes in his negotiations with Conon, who at the time commanded a Persian fleet in the Aegean under the orders of the Cypriot king Evagoras I of Salamis.

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson

In the period from the death of Alexander (3) the Great in 323 bce until Octavian's conquest and the death of *Cleopatra VII in 30 bce the Egyptian throne was held by Macedonians, and from 304 by the one family (for which see ptolemy (1)) descended from Alexander's general Ptolemy son of Lagus. Externally the main problem remained the extent of the kingdom, while internally the nature of administrative control and relations with the native Egyptians formed the major concerns of this new resident dynasty of foreign pharaohs. For the modern observer it is the incomplete nature of the historical record which presents problems. Contemporary historical analysis is limited in period (*Polybius (1), *Diodorus (3) Siculus), much of it concentrating on the scandalous and sensational (*Pompeius Trogus, *Justin), and while numerous papyri and ostraca, preserved through the dry desert conditions, join with inscriptions to make Egypt better documented than other Hellenistic kingdoms, these illustrate the details of administration and everyday life without its wider context.

Article

Donald Ernest Wilson Wormell and Simon Hornblower

Evagoras (Εὐαγόρας, c. 435–374/3 bce), an interesting and important figure in Greek, Persian, and Cypriot history. He was a member of the Teucrid house (cf. Tod 194), the traditional rulers of *Salamis (2). Exiled during his youth, which fell in a period of Phoenician domination, he gathered some 50 followers at Soli in Cilicia, and with their help established himself as ruler of Salamis in 411. His subsequent policy aimed at strengthening *Hellenism in *Cyprus by co-operation with Athens (which honoured him c.407, perhaps for shipping corn there); and his court became a centre for Athenian émigrés, of whom *Conon (1) was the most distinguished. A clash with Persia was ultimately inevitable, but in his early years he was not out of line with Persia, and he postponed the confrontation by assisting in the revival of Persian sea-power culminating in the triumph of *Cnidus (394, see athens (history)).

Article

Shortly after his reconquest of Babylonia in 312bce, Seleucus, a former general of Alexander the Great, was able to conquer the Achaemenid heartland of Persis (Fars), and in the second half of the 2nd centurybce, it was the Arsacids who put themselves in possession of this prestigious region. Shortly before, Fars had been allowed to enjoy a brief period of independence, when the Seleucid empire, at least after Antiochus III’s heavy defeat by Rome, had shown clear signs of an internal and external crisis. Scholars have openly discussed the date and duration of Persid independence, and even sometimes denied the existence of conflicts between Seleucids and Persid dynasts (Fratarakā; cf. Engels). In these debates, the dating and interpretation of the coins of sub-Seleucid dynasts and independent rulers of Fars are decisive, but this procedure should not be tackled without taking into due and independent consideration the existing archaeological, epigraphic, and literary evidence.

Article

Dorothy J. Thompson, Albert Brian Bosworth, Theodore John Cadoux, and Ernst Badian

The name of all the Macedonian kings of Egypt.(‘Saviour’) (c. 367–282 bce) son of Lagus and Arsinoë, served *Alexander (3) the Great of Macedon as an experienced general and childhood friend. At Susa in 324 he married Artacama (also called Apame), daughter of *Artabazus, whom he later divorced. He later married the Macedonian Eurydice (6 children) and subsequently *Berenice (1) I, mother of the dynastic line. After Alexander's death (323) he hijacked the conqueror's embalmed corpse and, taking it to Memphis in Egypt, established himself as satrap in place of *Cleomenes (3). In the following year he took Cyrene and in 321 repulsed the invasion of *Perdiccas (3). In the complex struggles of Alexander's successors he was not at first particularly successful. In 295 however he recovered Cyprus, lost in 306 to *Demetrius (4) Poliorcetes, and from 291 he increasingly controlled the Aegean League of Islanders (.