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Chaeremon of *Alexandria (1), where he held a priesthood: Greek writer on Egypt. He taught the young *Nero. His writings treated Egyptian history, religion, customs, astrology, and hieroglyphic writings. A Stoic viewpoint is visible.

Article

Heliodorus was the author of the Aethiopica, the latest and longest Greek novel to survive from antiquity. In his work, Heliodorus claims to be a Phoenician from Emesa, but there are good reasons against treating this as an authoritative autobiographical statement. The Aethiopica tells the adventures of Charicleia, the white daughter of the black queen and king of Ethiopia. Her mother abandons her, and she is brought up by foster-fathers in Ethiopia and Delphi. There she falls in love with the young Greek Theagenes, with whom she travels via Egypt to Ethiopia. They are almost sacrificed to the local gods, but Charicleia’s parents eventually recognise her. The protagonists become priests and marry. The novel is a narratologically ambitious work that draws on the structure of the Odyssey (in mediis rebus beginning, embedded heterodiegetic narratives) and takes these devices to a whole new level. A wide range of topics play important roles in the Aethiopica, such as religion, multiculturalism, identity, and epistemology.

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Herodian (2) of eastern origin, perhaps from *Antioch(1), a subordinate official in Rome early in the 3rd cent. ce and probably an imperial freedman (see PIR I, II, III2 H 160), wrote a Greek History of the Empire after Marcus in eight books from M. *Aurelius to *Gordian III (ce 180–238).

Article

Sumerian-Akkadian mythology reaches back to the earliest lists of gods in the third millennium bce and preoccupied the Mesopotamian intellectuals for more than 2000 years. This overview describes four major moments in the earlier phases of that history, each putting in place a different type of cosmic building block: ontologies, infrastructures, genealogies, and interfaces. These four phases stretch from the first mythological narratives in the mid-third millennium down to the late second and first millennium bce, when Mesopotamian materials are reconfigured and adapted for cuneiform scribal traditions in northern Mesopotamia, Syria and the Levant. Rather than limiting ourselves to late, somewhat heterodox recompilations such as the Enuma Elish or the Baal Epic, this contribution argues that the most important and long-lived features of the mythological tradition in Mesopotamia came into existence between 2500 and 1500bce.Like the poetry of a particular language or the usual turns of phrase in a family, the mythology embedded in a particular culture or civilization provides decisive clues to the central concerns of that society. These clues are indirect hints at most, constrained by the need to transmit specific textual materials (mythologems, proverbs, or narratives), while at the same time producing the local pragmatic effects that they are thought to achieve. Surprisingly, then, mythological materials are also usually quite susceptible to translation, giving the unknowing reader the impression that things were not so very different four thousand years ago in ancient Iraq. If we adopt a definition of myth that limits our quarry to “stories about deities that describe how the basic structures of reality came into existence,” excluding thereby .

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Kenneth S. Sacks

Wrote several books about the contemporary near east, including coverage of Pompey's settlement in 63–62. His Περὶ χρυσοφόρου γῆς (‘On the Gold-Producing Land’) does not necessarily identify him with *Teucer(4) of Babylon.

Article

Troy  

Carl W. Blegen and D. F. Easton

Troy lies in north-west *Asia Minor 5 km. from the *Hellespont. The site consists of a mound with c. 25 m. of deposits and a 1 km. sq. skirt to the south. It was noted by F. Kauffer (1793), identified as classical Ilion by E. D. Clarke (1810) and as Homeric Troy by C. Maclaren (1820). Soundings by Frank Calvert (1863, 1865) revealed prehistoric strata. H. Schliemann excavated much of the mound (1870–90), further excavations being by W. Dörpfeld (1893–94), C. W. Blegen (1932–38), M. O. Korfmann (1988–2006) with C. B. Rose, and since 2006 by E. Pernicka.The site was occupied from c. 2900 bce to the 6th cent. ce. The numerous phases are conventionally, but variously, grouped into nine bands. As now defined, I–III (from c. 2900 bce) represent the early bronze age, IV–V (from c.

Article

His date is not quite certain, but 4th century ce (rather than three centuries earlier) seems likeliest. He is a source for much of the Arabian information in Stephanus of Byzantium, in whose treatise on ethnics he is praised highly.