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Article

John Maxwell O'Brien and Barney Rickenbacker

The ancient Romans were as interested in the harmful effects of excessive drinking and chronic intoxication as their Greek counterparts. In On the Nature of Things, *Lucretius writes that wine's fury disturbs the soul, debilitates the body, and provokes quarrels (3. 476–83). The younger *Seneca warns that habitual drunkenness so weakens the mind that its consequences are felt long after the drinking has stopped (Ep. 83. 26). He notes that some men become so tolerant of wine that even though they are inebriated they appear to be sober (Ep. 83. 11). Seneca also suggests that drunkenness tends to disclose and magnify character defects (Ep. 83. 19–20). In his Naturalis historia, *Pliny (1) the Elder finds irony in the fact that men spend hard-earned money on something that can damage the mind and cause madness (14. 137). Like the Greeks, Pliny comments on truth in wine (‘in vino veritas’), but emphasizes that the truths therein revealed are often better left unspoken (HN 14.

Article

Tim Cornell

The Latin word annales (‘yearbooks’, ‘annals’) became the standard term for historical records in a general sense, and was frequently used by historians as a title for their works, probably in imitation of the *annales maximi. The first Latin writer to call his work ‘Annals’ was *Ennius, which proves that already in his time the term could be applied to any kind of historical work, even if, like Ennius' poem, it was not in the form of a year-by-year chronicle. Whether the earliest Roman historians, who wrote in Greek, adopted a year-by-year arrangement is disputed; the fact that later writers refer to (e.g.) Q. *Fabius Pictor's history as ‘Greek annals’ (Graeci annales: Cic. Div. 1. 43) is hardly decisive. Pliny (HN 8. 11) even calls the work of *Cato (Censorius)annales, even though Cato did not use the chronicle form, ridiculed the annales maximi (4.

Article

Howard Hayes Scullard and Antony Spawforth

Asinius Quadratus, Gaius, author of the Thousand Years (Χιλιετηρίς), a fifteen-book history of Rome from the beginnings to Severus Alexander with a Greek slant (it was written in Ionic Greek and equated Rome's foundation with the first Olympiad in 776 bce), and a Parthian history in at least nine books. Probably the same as C. Asinius Protimus Quadratus (PIR2 A 1244; P.

Article

Cassiodorus was a prominent participant in the political, intellectual, and religious life of 6th-century ce Italy, and a learned scholar of the classical and Christian traditions. As a member of the administration of the Gothic government under Theoderic and his successors, he advanced through what may be considered the late-Roman cursus honorum. He was also witness to the dramatic political and religious debates of the day, including volatile interactions between the royal court at Ravenna, the Senate at Rome, and the emperor in Constantinople. Justinian’s Gothic War in Italy effectively ended his political career, after which he first became an exile in Constantinople, and then the founder of a school for Christian learning (Vivarium) on his ancestral estates in southern Italy. The literary works that he produced span the spectrum of his personal experiences and attest to the intellectual and cultural range of people living during the 6th century: panegyrics, a chronicle, ethnography, letters, treatises on reading, grammars, Christian exegesis, and ecclesiastical history.

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Lucius Cincius Alimentus, Roman senator and historian, was praetor in Sicily in 210/9 bce, and was captured by Hannibal (Livy 21. 38. 3). His history of Rome, written in Greek, set the foundation of the city in 729–728 bce and reached his own times. With the work of Q.

Article

Tiberius (Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes) Claudius Atticus Herodes (2), ‘Herodes Atticus’ (c. 101–77 ce), celebrated Athenian sophist and benefactor of Greek cities, ordinary consul 143 ce; friend of M. *Aurelius, whom he taught (along with L. *Verus). A controversial public figure, he quarrelled with Fronto and the *Quintilii brothers, governors of Greece, and was accused of ‘tyranny’ by Athenian enemies (174 ce) before M. Aurelius, whose efforts to reconcile the two parties emerge from a long Athenian inscription published in 1970; his gifts of buildings, above all at Athens (see athens, topography), were not always appreciated by fellow Greeks (see olympia). His declaiming style was straightforward, elegant, and restrained, recalling Critias and influencing a wide circle of pupils. His works included lectures and diaries; only a Latin translation of a *fabula survives (Gell.

Article

Probably a son of Tiberius *Claudius Thrasyllus and shared his astrological lore. (See astrology.) He was ADC (praefectus fabrum, see fabri) to *Claudius and tribune of Legio XX in the invasion of Britain in 43 ce, winning decorations; he served as secretary dealing with Greek embassies and applications, and held posts in Egypt, including headship of the *Museum at *Alexandria (1). Favoured by *Iulia Agrippina, he was prefect of Egypt from 55 until her death in 59. He survived until the reign of *Vespasian, who allowed him honours from Ephesus; his daughter married Epiphanes of *Commagene and he was grandfather of *Iulius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus (suffect consul 109). Seneca Q.Nat. 4. 2. 13 describes Balbillus as exceptionally gifted in every branch of literature; fragments of his Astrologumena are preserved (CCAG 8. 3. 103, 8. 4. 233). (The identity of astrologer and prefect was denied by A.

Article

Theodore John Cadoux and Robin Seager

Quintus Cornificius, of recent senatorial family, was an orator and poet and a friend of *Catullus and *Cicero (cf. Catull. 38. 1, Cic.Fam. 12. 17–30). He wrote a lost *epyllionGlaucus. As quaestor pro praetore in 48 bce he recovered Illyricum for *Caesar and helped to defend it against the Pompeian fleet (see pompey). In 46 he was in charge of Cilicia, perhaps as legatus pro praetore; soon, however, Caesar assigned him to Syria and the war against Q. *Caecilius Bassus; what he did in this command is not known. He was praetor (probably) in 45, and in the summer of 44, probably in accordance with Caesar's appointment, he went as governor to Africa Vetus, and continued to hold it for the senate in disregard of the claims of C. *Calvisius Sabinus. In 43 the triumvirs (*Octavian, M. *Antonius (2) (Mark Antony), and *M.

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Barbara Levick

Aulus Cremutius Cordus, the historian, writing under *Augustus (Suet.Tib. 61. 3) and *Tiberius, treated the period from the Civil Wars to at least 18 bce (Suet. Aug. 35. 2). Refusing to glorify Augustus, he celebrated *Cicero, *Brutus, and *Cassius, ‘the last Roman’. Prosecuted at the instigation of *Sejanus (Tac. Ann. 4. 34 f.), he committed suicide (25 ce). His work was burnt, but copies, preserved by his daughter, were published in abridged form under *Gaius (1) (Cass. Dio 57. 24. 4). *Pliny (1) the Elder and Seneca the Younger (L. *Annaeus Seneca (2)) used his work.

Article

Alexander Hugh McDonald and Antony Spawforth

Athenian notable and historian (3rd cent. CE), author of (1) an account of the Successor-period (Τὰ μετὰ Ἀλέξανδρον), lost; (2) a History from mythical times to ce 269/70 in twelve books (fragments survive); and (3) a Scythian History (Σκυθικά) covering the Gothic Wars from ce 238 to Aurelian; preserved largely in *Zosimus, it has many Thucydidean echoes (see thucydides(2)). The ancient tradition (SHA Gall. 13. 8) that he personally led Athenian resistance to the *Heruli in ce 267 has been doubted, perhaps unreasonably (G. Martin).

Article

Larry Ball

The Domus Aurea (Golden House) was the opulent residence of the emperor Nero (r. 54–68 ce), set in a vast park in Rome. Ancient literary sources on the Domus Aurea are abundant, albeit not wholly reliable or fair to Nero. Both Suetonius (Ner. 31) and Tacitus (Ann. 15.38–40 and 42) describe the construction. The first phase started in c. 60 ce. This was called the Domus Transitoria, which was interrupted by the great fire of 64 ce. “Domus Aurea” refers to the second phase, after the fire. Given its enormous scale, the Domus Aurea may not have been fully completed in just four years, but at least part of it was finished, most likely the core of the residence, on the Palatine Hill, near the forum, and Nero did move in. The palatine core is largely unknown to us, but the vast parklands created to the east of the forum area include a fine villa on the Esquiline Hill that bespeaks a spectacular new standard both for architectural design in vaulted Roman concrete and in decoration. After Nero, systematic obliteration of the Domus Aurea began with Vespasian (r. 69–79 ce), who sought to erase Nero’s memory.

Article

J. V. Muir

There is very little reliable evidence bearing upon formal education in the early period. Education was then certainly centred on the family and was probably based upon apprenticeship supervised by the father—in poorer homes an apprenticeship to agriculture or trade, in more aristocratic circles to military service and public life (what later became known as the tirocinium militiae and the tirocinium fori). The authority of the father, legalized as *patria potestas, was absolute and could only in theory be questioned by the censors. The Roman mother had a more restricted, domestic role but she too was traditionally expected to take a personal, central responsibility and to set a strong moral example (see motherhood, Roman). It is not certain when reading and writing became a serious part of Roman education: the 7th-cent. bce ivory writing-tablet with inscribed alphabet found at Marsiliana d'Albegna and 6th-cent. bucchero (pottery) models of wooden writing-tablets (tabulae ansatae) from Etruria may imply that *literacy was then already making some headway.

Article

Christopher Pelling

‘Which of the gods was it that brought the two together in strife?’, asks the Iliad as it launches its narrative (1.8); early in the Odyssey*Zeus complains that mortals blame the gods when they are responsible for their own sufferings (1.32–3). Both poems however swiftly complicate any attempt to limit explanations to either the human or the divine level. Achilles and Agamemnon quarrel, Achilles kills Hector, and Odysseus gets home, largely because they are the people that they are, but gods often intervene too. The Greeks win because they are better fighters; they also win because more gods are on their side. The poems also suggest another form of explanation, not tracing events to their origins but relating them to a familiar pattern of human life. Suffering is the lot of humanity (Il. 24.525–6); outrages like those of the suitors are punished. Life is like that, and one should not be surprised.

Article

Florus  

Edward Seymour Forster, Gavin B. Townend, and Antony Spawforth

Florus, the name of three Latin authors, is usually, but not unanimously, identified as the same man. (1) Lucius Annaeus (Iulius in Cod. Bamberg) Florus, Roman historian, author of the Epitome bellorum omnium annorum DCC (‘Abridgement of all the Wars over 700 Years’); wrote no earlier than *Antoninus Pius to judge from pref. 8 and 1. 5. 5–8. His work is an outline of Roman history with special reference to the wars waged up to the reign of Augustus, with the suggestion that the latter had brought peace to the world. Some manuscripts describe it as an *epitome of *Livy; but it is sometimes at variance with Livy. The author also made use of *Sallust, *Caesar, and in one passage (pref. 4–8) probably the elder Seneca (see annaeus seneca (1), l.); and there are reminiscences of *Virgil and Lucan (see annaeus lucanus, m.

Article

Aulus Furius Antias (i.e. of Antium), (fl. 100 bce), friend of Q. *Lutatius Catulus (1) (Cic.Brut. 132), epic poet influenced by Ennius and in turn influencing Virgil. From his Annales, a historical poem in at least eleven books, A. *Gellius (NA 18. 11) quotes six hexameters.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Author of a compendium of Roman history. The arrangement is annalistic (see annals), with digressions; most of the material seems to come ultimately from *Livy, but he knows other authors too, notably *Sallust. The remains, preserved in a now largely illegible London palimpsest, come from books 2 (?), 28, 3 (?), 35, 36, referring to events of 165–162, 105, and 86–77 bce. Post-Hadrianic in date, the work shows an interest in curiosities, prodigies, anecdotes, and antiquarian explanations of institutions. Servius also quotes his Cena (‘Dinner’) for a detail of ancient drinking practice.

Article

Livy  

John Briscoe

Livy (Titus Livius), the Roman historian, lived 59 bce– 17ce (although Syme has argued for 64 bce– 12ce). He was born and died at *Patavium , the most prosperous city of northern Italy, famed for its stern morality. C. *Asinius Pollio criticized Livy's Patavinitas (Paduanism), but the import of this remark is unclear. An epitaph from Padua recording a T. Livius with two sons and a wife Cassia Prima may be his (ILS 2919). In a letter he urged his son to imitate *Demosthenes (2) and *Cicero , and this or another son wrote a geographical work. A daughter married L. Magius, a rhetorician. We do not know when Livy came to Rome or how much time he spent there; but he was on good personal terms with *Augustus (see below) and encouraged the young *Claudius , future emperor, to write history. Apart from, perhaps before beginning, his major work he also wrote philosophical dialogues.

Article

Christopher Pelling

Marius Maximus, biographer of twelve emperors from *Nerva to *Elagabalus, continuator and imitator of *Suetonius. He is probably the Marius Maximus who governed Syria, Africa, and Asia, was *praefectus urbi in ce 217–18, and held his second consulship in 223. His biographies mixed the anecdotal and scurrilous with the diligent quotation of lengthy documents. Like Suetonius, he arranged his material by categories. His work influenced the *Historia Augusta and provided some of its material (he is quoted there 26 times): he may even have been the main source, at least for some Lives (especially Elagabalus), though the issue is fiercely disputed. *Ammianus Marcellinus 28. 4. 14 deplores the taste of those who were still reading him.

Article

J. David Thomas

In comparison with Greek papyri, Latin papyri are uncommon, even when “papyri” is understood in a wide sense so as to include *ostraca and parchment scraps. This is so because the vast majority of papyri come from the eastern Mediterranean, where the language of administration was Greek even under the Roman empire. Latin was in regular use in this area until c. 300ce only in the military sphere; and although *Diocletian made an effort to encourage the use of Latin in the eastern provinces, this did not have any great effect.Since the turn of the 20th century, some 600 Latin papyri have been published, less than a quarter of which are literary. Most come from Egypt, but finds have also been made at Dura-*Europus, Nessana, and *Masada, as well as in the west. Two literary papyri dating from the reign of *Augustus are known: the much discussed elegiac verses from Qasr Ibrim attributed to *Cornelius Gallus1 and a fragment of *Cicero, In Verrem (CPL 20).

Article

Gaius Plinius Secundus, prominent Roman equestrian, from Novum *Comum in Gallia Cisalpina (see gaul (cisalpine)), commander of the fleet at *Misenum, and uncle of *Pliny (2) the Younger, best known as the author of the 37-book Naturalis Historia, an encyclopaedia of all contemporary knowledge—animal, vegetable, and mineral—but with much that is human included too: natura, hoc est vita, narratur (‘Nature, which is to say Life, is my subject’, pref. 13).Characteristic of his age and background in his range of interests and diverse career, Pliny obtained an equestrian command through the patronage of Q. Pomponius Secundus (consul 41), and served in Germany, alongside the future emperor *Titus. Active in legal practice in the reign of *Nero, he was then promoted by the favour of the Flavians (and probably the patronage of *Licinius Mucianus, whose works he also often quotes) through a series of high procuratorships (including that of Hispania *Tarraconensis), in which he won a reputation for integrity.